Star Names Catalog

Since the dawn of recorded history with Adam and Eve, man has looked to the heavens to marvel at the glory of God and His creation. When God created the heavens, He assigned names to the visible stars and the visible constellations. Adam and Eve started off with a good understanding of these names and constellations. Over the centuries, the names of those stars have been handed down through various cultures and languages. Our research is an attempt to determine the original Biblical names for the stars and their place in the various constellations. Once the names are learned, then we can attempt to determine what these names mean.

The recorded history we have of various star catalogues have provided us with many star names. Our star catalog is an attempt to bring together all the star names from all the star catalogs. This listing of star names includes various references to the same physical star. With this, we can study what different cultures and languages have seen as the interpretation of the star names and the constellations.

For each star name in the catalog we have tried to assign a constellation for it and a particular physical star that is being referred to. Thus, this star catalog is not an exhaustive listing of every visible star that is assigned to a particular constellation. In fact, our catalog has more records since some physical stars have been referred to with various different names. Not every culture referred to each star by the same name or with the same interpretation.

Only star names from Indo-European culture were considered for this list. That would include the Middle East, Arabic culture, Egyptian, Persian, Greek, Latin and European cultures. Star names from Chinese, aboriginal Australia, the Pacific islands and native American cultures were not included because their astronomy differs greatly from that of Middle Eastern heritage.

On or about September 12, 2018, we began a list of star names found in E. W. Bullinger’s The Witness of the Stars (1895). We were pleased to find that Bullinger had identified many of the stars that he mentioned with a unique scientific identifier. This avoids confusion about the star that he is explaining. Unfortunately, we also found that about half of the stars named by Bullinger had no scientific identifier. This makes it hard to know the location of the star within the constellation. Common names of stars are often transliterated from other languages, such as Arabic, and not always spelled the same way in English.

In the preface of his book, Bullinger mentions the names of two of his acquaintances who had been doing similar research into the Biblical meanings of stars and constellations. First, there was Miss Frances Rolleston, of Keswick, who began her research in the field of Egyptian mythology in 1811 and continued until her death at 82 years of age in 1864. In the sentence that follows, Bullinger mentions Dr. Joseph A. Seiss of Philadelphia, who published The Gospel in the Stars in 1882. Reading all three works, it becomes obvious that all the star names and interpretations of Seiss and Bullinger are those of Rolleston. Seiss and Bullinger simply added star maps and diagrams.

In finding copies of these three books, another name came up; that of Richard Hinckley Allen, who published Star Names, their Lore and Legend in 1899. We found that Allen’s research had been thorough and he gave detailed etymologies and evolutions of star names from Classical Greek, several generations of Byzantine astronomers writing in Arabic, and into European astronomy of the Renaissance period. Allen filled in nearly every gap left by Rolleston, Seiss and Bullinger.

The naming of stars did not, however, end in 1899. More stars were named in the 20th Century and cited by writers basing their work on Rolleston. Most star names that originated in the 20th and 21st Centuries have been included. There are also obscure names of some stars that only circulate among practitioners of celestial divination. A few of Rolleston’s unidentified names were only to be found at a web resource named “”. Latin names were mostly found in the writings of Al Achsasi al Mouakket, who wrote in both Arabic and Latin in the 17th Century.

All proper names for stars mentioned by Rolleston, Seiss, Bullinger and others have been identified unmistakably to specific objects that people can see in the night sky. 53 of Rolleston’s unidentified names turned out to be alternate names of entire constellations in different languages. For example, the Greeks named one conspicuous constellation was named Orion by the Greeks, not knowing that Arabic people had been calling it Al Jauzah for many centuries prior. Alternate names of entire constellations were set aside in another list.

The method used to build this list was to merge together as many different lists of star names having a unique scientific identifier as could be found. The first list came from the IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN). The list of named stars published by the International Crescent Observation Project (ICOP) was appended to that. To this, was added A Reduced Star Catalog Containing 537 Named Stars, published by NASA in 1971. To this, was added every star name mention in the 88 Wikipedia articles having titles like, “List of Stars in Andromeda”. There were 88 such web pages because there are 88 constellations currently recognized. A few other lists of named stars were found at more obscure web sites, and these were appended until the complete list had 3,201 names with positive identification.

The list of 3,201 star names was then checked for validity against Star Names and their Meanings, written by Richard Hinckley Allen in 1899, and against Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1895 onward. A few of the most obscure star names required exhaustive Google searches that took many days. Duplicate names were consolidated into single entries. Names that turned out to be alternate names of entire constellations, or parts thereof, were set aside into a separate list. This reduced the list to 1,450 proper names of stars with positive identification.

Research Documentation

Select Constellation Name below to See the Star Names for stars in that constellation

Count Constellation Constellations 88 Table First Name Second name View Stars
1 And the Chained Maiden Andromeda

ANDROMEDA. The redeemed in bondage.

Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Set, which means seated as a queen. Also, Sirco = the chained. The brightest star is Al Phiratz = the broken down. The next, Mirach = the weak. The next, Al amok (Arab) = stuck down. (Isa. 54:11-14; 51:21-52:3. Jer. 14:17.)

Andromeda (the Chained Woman)

This is a peculiar picture to set in the heavens. A woman with chains fastened to her feet and arms, in misery and trouble; and bound, helpless, to the sky. Yet this is the ancient foreshowing of the truth.

In the Denderah Zodiac her name is Set, which means set, set up as a queen. In Hebrew it is Sirra, the chained, and Persea, the stretched out.

There are 63 stars in this constellation, three of which are of the 2nd magnitude, two of the 3rd, twelve of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (in the head), is called Al Phiratz (Arabic), the broken down. The star b (in the body) is called Mirach (Hebrew), the weak. The star g (in the left foot) is called Al Maach, or Al Amak (Arabic), struck down.

The names of other stars are Adhil, the afflicted; Mizar, the weak; Al Mara (Arabic), the afflicted. ARATUS speaks of Desma, which means the bound, and says--

"Her feet point to her bridegroom
Perseus, on whose shoulder they rest."

Thus, with one voice, the stars of Andromeda speak to us of the captive daughter of Zion. And her coming Deliverer thus addresses her:

"O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted,
Behold, righteousness shalt thou be established:
Thou shalt be far from oppression; for thou shalt not fear:
And from terror; for it shall not come nigh thee."
Isaiah 54:11-14

"Hear now this, thou afflicted...
Awake, awake; put on thy strength, O Zion;
Put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem...
Shake thyself from the dust;
Arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem:
Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.
For thus saith the LORD, Ye have sold yourselves for nought;
And ye shall be redeemed without money."
Isaiah 51:21-52:3

"The virgin daughter of My people is broken with a great breach, with a very grievous blow" (Jer 14:17).

The picture which sets forth her deliverance is reserved for the next chapter (or Sign), where it comes in its proper place and order. We are fist shown her glorious Deliverer; for we never, in the heavens or in the Word, have a reference to the sufferings without an immediate reference to the glory.

Andromedae View Stars
2 Aql the Eagle Aquila

AQUILA. The smitten One falling.

the eagle, pierced and wounded and falling. The brightest star, Al tair = wounding. All the others are similar.

Sagitta (the Arrow)
Aquila (the Eagle)
Delphinus (the Dolphin)

Here we have an additional picture of the effect of this arrow, in the pierced, wounded, and falling Eagle, gasping in its dying struggle. And that pierced, wounded, and dying Saviour whom it represents, after saying, in Psalm 38:2 "Thine arrows stick fast in Me," added, in verse 10--

"My heart panteth, My strength faileth Me,
As for the light of Mine eyes it is gone from Me."
(see also Zechariah 13:6)

The names of the stars, all of them, bear out this representation. The constellation contains 74 stars. The brightest of them, a (in the Eagle's neck), is a notable star of the 1st magnitude, called Al Tair (Arabic), the wounding. The star b (in the throat) is called Al Shain (Arabic), the bright, from a Hebrew root meaning scarlet coloured, as in Joshua 2:18. The star g (in the back) is called Tarared, wounded, or torn. d (in the lower wing) is named Alcair, which means the piercing, and e (in the tail), Al Okal, has the significant meaning wounded in the heel.

How can the united testimony of these names be explained except by acknowledging a Divine origin? even that of Him who afterwards foretold of the bruising of the Virgin's Son in the written Word; yea, of Him "who telleth the number of the stars and giveth them all their names."

Aquilae View Stars
3 Aqr the Water Bearer Aquarius

Aquarius (the water urn) - He is the one pouring out the blessings on the redeemed.

The Blessings Ensured
Water bearer with poured-out urn at belly level
Blessings of redemption poured out
Coming of Holy Spirit
Rivers of living water
Great spiritual ability
Affinity for the energizing of the Holy Spirit
Piscis Australis—blessings bestowed
Pegasus—blessings coming quickly
Cygnus—blesser surely returning

Aquarius, the water bearer with the poured-out urn often pictured at belly level, could be indicative of the coming of the Holy Spirit. Jesus referenced this when He said, “out of your belly shall flow rivers of living water.” This constellation indicates great spiritual ability—an affinity for the energizing of the Holy Spirit.

Aquarii View Stars
4 Ara the Altar Ara

ARA. Fire prepared for His enemies.

and altar upside down, pointing to Tartarus (Isa. 63:4, 5). Arab. Al mugamra = the completing or finishing (Ps. 21:9-12).

Ara (the Altar)

Here we have an altar or burning pyre, placed significantly and ominously upside down! with its fires burning and pointing downwards towards the lower regions, called Tartarus, or the abyss, or "outer-darkness."

It is an asterism with nine stars, of which three are of the 3rd magnitude, four of the 4th, etc. It is south of the Scorpion's tail, and when these constellations were first formed it was visible only on the very lowest horizon of the south, pointing to the completion of all judgment in the lake of fire.

In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a different picture, giving us another aspect of the same judgment. It is a man enthroned, with a flail in his hand. His name is Bau, the same name as Hercules has, and means He cometh. It is from the Hebrew Boh, to come, as in Isaiah 63:1--

"Who is this that cometh from Edom,
With dyed garments from Bozrah."

This is a coming in judgment, as is clear from the reason given in verse 4--

"For the day of vengeance is in Mine heart,
And the year of My redeemed is come.
And I looked, and there was none to help;
And I wondered that there was none to uphold;
Therefore Mine own arm brought salvation,
And My fury, it upheld Me."
Isaiah 63:4, 5

The completion of judgment, therefore, is what is pictured both by the burning pyre and the Coming One enthroned, with his threshing instrument.

In Arabic it is called Al Mugamra, which means the completing, or finishing. The Greeks used the word Ara sometimes in the sense of praying, but more frequently in the sense of imprecation or cursing.

This is the curse pronounced against the great enemy. This is the burning fire, pointing to the completion of that curse, when he shall be cast into that everlasting fire "prepared for the devil and his angels." This is the allusion to it written in the midst of the very Scripture from which we have already quoted, Psalm 21, where we read in verse 9 (which we then omitted)--

"Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of Thine anger:
The LORD shall swallow them up in His wrath;
And the fire shall devour them."

Arae View Stars
5 Ari the Ram Aries

Aries (the ram) - He is the Ram of God, redeeming through His sacrificial blood, which was shed as the Passover Lamb.

Their Blessings Consummated and Enjoyed
Ram of God
Lamb slain but now living evermore
Coming King after His sacrifice
Kingdom taker
Attitude of fighting for others
Sacrificial leadership
Leads with love and encouragement
Cassiopeia—true church bride
Cetus—Satan bound
Perseus—breaker; deliverer

Aries is the ram of God—not one dying in sacrifice but one full of vigor—representing the coming King after His sacrifice. It is indicative of a kingdom-taking trait, with the three decans in this grouping showing an attitude of fighting for others and a sacrificial type of leadership, rather than one who leads from the front. An Aries, although not always the one in charge, leads with love and encouragement.

Arietis View Stars
6 Aur the Charioteer Auriga

AURIGA. Safety for His redeemed in the day of wrath.

The Shepherd. (Isa. 40:10, 11. Ezek. 34:22). Auriga = Charioteer. The brightest star is Alioth = a she-goat. Modern Lat. name is Capella, same meaning. The next is Menkilinon = the band of the goats; bound, never to be again lost. (John 10:11.) In the Zodiac of Denderah, the shepherd carries a sceptre (Trun), the top with a goat, and bottom with a cross. (Mal. 4:1-3. Ps. 37:38-40).

Auriga (the Shepherd)

Here is presented to us the answer to the question, "Who may abide the day of His coming?"

"Behold, the Lord GOD (Adonai Jehovah) will come as a mighty one,
And His arm shall rule for Him:
Behold, His reward is with Him,
And His recompense before Him.
He shall feed His flock like a shepherd,
He shall gather the lambs in His arm,
And carry them in His bosom,
And shall gently lead those that give suck."
Isaiah 40:10, 11, RV

This is exactly what is presented before us in this last section of the chapter, which tells of the coming judgment. We have had the picture of a mighty Bull rushing forth; then the fiery river of the Judge; and now we see a Great Shepherd. He is seated upon "the milky way," holding up on his left shoulder a she goat. She clings to his neck, and is looking down affrighted at the terrible on-rushing Bull. In his left hand he supports two little kids, apparently just born, and bleating, and trembling with fear.

ARATUS says,

"She is both large and bright, but they--the kids--
Shine somewhat feebly on Auriga's wrist."

Is not this the Great Shepherd gathering the lambs in His arm? and carrying them in His bosom? Is He not saying:

"I will save My flock,
And they shall no more be a prey."
Ezekiel 34:22

"And David my servant shal be king over them,
And they shall have one shepherd."
Ezekiel 37:24

"And they shall fear no more,
Nor be dismayed,
Neither shall they be lacking, saith the LORD."
Jeremiah 23:4

AURIGA is from a Hebrew root which means a shepherd. It is a beautiful constellation of 66 stars; one of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, nine of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (in the body of the goat), points her out as the prominent feature of the constellation, for its name Alioth (Hebrew) means a she goat. It is known by the modern Latin name Capella, which has the same meaning.

The next star, b (in the shepherd's right arm), is called Menkilinon, and means the band, or chain of the goats, and points out the truth that they are never more to be lost again, but to be bound, with the bands of love, to the Shepherd for evermore.

The name of another star is Maaz, which means a flock of goats.

Can there be any mistake as to who this Shepherd is? for the bright star in his right foot is called El Nath (like another in ARIES), which means wounded or slain. This is He, then, who was once bruised or wounded in the heel. He is "the GOOD Shepherd," who gave His life for the sheep (John 10:11), but He was "the GREAT Shepherd" brought again from the dead (Heb 13:20); and is now the CHIEF Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4) seen in the day of His coming glory. Another star emphasises this truth, for it is named Aiyuk, which also means wounded in the foot.

The star marking the kids is called Gedi (Hebrew), kids.

In Latin, the word Auriga means a coachman or charioteer, the band in his right hand being taken as his reins. But the incongruity of a charioteer carrying a she-goat, and nursing two little kids, never struck them; nor did the fact that he has no chariot and no horses! When man blunders in the things of God, he does it thoroughly!

In the Zodiac of Denderah the same truth was revealed more than 4,000 years ago; but the Man, instead of carrying the sheep, is carrying a sceptre, and is called Trun, which means sceptre or power. But this is a strange sceptre, for at the top it has the head of a goat, and at the bottom, below the hand that holds it, it ends in a cross! With the Egyptians the cross was a sign of life. they knew nothing of "the death of the cross." Here, then, we see life and salvation for the sheep of His flock when He comes to reign and rule in judgment. The truth is precisely the same, though the presentation of it is somewhat varied.

The connected teaching of the two constellations, Eridanus and Auriga, is solemnly set forth in Malachi 4:1-3 (RV):

"Behold, the day cometh,
It burneth as a furnace;
And all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble:
And the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts,
That it shall leave them neither root nor branch.
BUT UNTO YOU that fear My name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in His wings;
And ye shall go forth and gambol as calves of the stall.
And ye shall tread down the wicked;
For they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet
In the day that I do make (marg. do this), saith the LORD of hosts."

In Psalm 37 this day is repeatedly referred to, the day when "the wicked shall be cut off"; and it concludes by summarizing the same great truth (vv 38-40, RV):

"As for transgressors, they shall be destroyed together;
The latter end of the wicked shall be cut off,
But the salvation of the righteous is of the LORD:
He is their stronghold in the time of trouble,
And the LORD helpeth them, and rescueth them;
He rescueth them from the wicked and saveth them,
Because they have taken refuge in Him."

Oh, that all who read these pages may heed the solemn warning, and flee for refuge to Him who now, in this day of grace, is crying, "Look unto me, and be ye saved, O all ye ends of the earth" (Isa 45:22).

Aurigae View Stars
7 Boo the Herdsman Boötes

BOOTES. The coming One with branch.

(Heb. bo', to come), Ps. 96:13. Heb. Arcturus (Job 9:9 = He cometh). Egyptian = Smat, one who rules.

Bootes (the Coming One)

This constellation still further develops this wondrous personage.

He is pictured as a man walking rapidly, with a spear in his right hand and a sickle in his left hand.

The Greeks called him Bo-o-tes, which is from the Hebrew root Bo (to come), meaning the coming. It is referred to in Psalm 96:13:

"For He cometh,
For He cometh to judge the earth;
He shall judge the world in righteousness,
And the people with His truth."

It is probable that his ancient name was Arcturus * (as referred to in Job 9:9), for this is the name of the brightest star, a (in the left knee). Arcturus means He cometh. **

* The ancient name could not have been Bootes! though it is derived from, and may be a reminiscence of the Hebrew.

** ARATUS calls him Arctophylax, i.e., the guardian of Arctos, the flock of the greater fold, called today the Great Bear:

"Behind, and seeming to urge on the Bear,
Arctophylax, on earth Bootes named,
Sheds o'er the Arctic car his silver light."

By some moderns he is mistakenly called The Waggoner. Hence the allusion of Thompson:

"Wide o'er the spacious regions of the North,
Bootes urges on his tardy wain."

This perversion scarecely does justice even to human common sense, as waggoneers do not use a sickle for a whip!

The ancient Egyptians called him Smat, which means one who rules, subdues, and governs. They also called him Bau (a reminiscence of the more ancient Bo), which means also the coming one.

The star m (in the spear-head) is named Al Katurops, which means the branch, treading under foot.

The star e (just below the waist on his right side) is called Mirac, or Mizar, or Izar. Mirac means the coming forth as an arrow; Mizar, or Izar, means the preserver, guarding.

The star h is called Muphride, i.e. who separates.

The star b (in the head) is named Nekkar, i.e. the pierced (Zech 12:10), which tells us that this coming judge is the One who was pierced. Another Hebrew name is Merga, who bruises. *

* The constellation is a very brilliant one, having 54 stars, viz., one of the 1st magnitude, six of the 3rd, eleven of the 4th, etc.

The constellation of the Canes Venatici (the Greyhounds), i.e., the two dogs (Asterion and Chara), which Bootes holds by a leash, is quite a modern invention, being added by Hevelius (1611-1687). The bright star of the 3rd magnitude in the neck of Chara, was named "Cor Caroli" (the heart of Charles) by Sir Charles Scarborough, physician to Charles II, in honour of Charles I, in 1649. This is a good example of the almost infinite distance between the ancient and modern names. The former are full of mysterious significance and grandeur, while the latter are puerile in the extreme, almost approaching to the comic! e.g., the Air Pump, the Painter's Easel, the Telescope, the Triangle, the Fly, the Microscope, the Indian, the Fox and Goose, the Balloon, the Toucan (or American Goose), the Compasses, Charles' Oak, the Cat, the Clock, the Unicorn, &c. The vast difference can be at once seen between those designed by the ancients and those added by astronomers in more recent times.

These new constellations were added, 22 by Hevelius; and 15 by Halley (1656-1742). They were formed for the purpose of embracing those stars which were not included in the ancient constellations. This shows that the old constellations were not designed, like the modern ones, merely for the sake of enabling astronomers to identify the positions of particular stars. In this case all the stars would have been included. The object was exactly the opposite! Instead of the pictures being designed to serve to identify the stars, only certain stars were used for the purpose of helping to identify the pictures!

This is another important proof of the truth of our whole argument.

This brings us back again to Genesis 3:15, and closes up this first chapter of the First Book (VIRGO). It shows us the Person of the Promised Seed from the beginning to the end, from the first promise of the birth of the Child in Bethlehem, to the final coming of the great Judge and Harvester to reap the harvest of the earth. This was the vision which was afterwards shown to John (Rev 14:15,16), when he says, "I looked; and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of Man, having on His head a golden crown, and in His hand a sharp sickle. And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to Him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle and reap; for the time is come for Thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe. And He that sat on the cloud thrust in His sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped."

This is the conclusion of the first chapter of this First Book. Here we see the woman whose Seed is to bruise the serpent's head, the Virgin-Born, the Branch of Jehovah, perfect man and perfect God, Immanuel, "God with us," yet despised and rejected of men, and yielding up His life that others may have life for evermore. But we see Him coming afterwards in triumphant power to judge the earth.

This is only one chapter of this First Book, but it contains the outline of the whole volume, complete in itself, so far as it regards the Person of the Coming One. Like the Book of Genesis, it is the seed-plot which contains the whole, all the rest being merely the development of the many grand details which are included and shut up within it. It is only one chapter out of twelve, but it distinctly foreshadows the end--even "the sufferings of Christ and the glory which should follow."

Boötis View Stars
8 Cam the Giraffe Camelopardalis Camelopardalis View Stars
9 Cap the Sea Goat Capricornus

Capricorn (the goat) - He is the slain goat, as the scapegoat of redemption.

The Blessings Procured
Dying goat and living fish
Sacrificial lifestyle and love for others
Coming back after defeat
Resurrection and new life
Loyalty to others
Strong friendship
Sagitta—arrow of God sent forth
Aquila—the smitten one falling
Delphinus—the dead one rising again

Capricorn, being the symbol of a dying goat in one half and a living fish in the other half, shows a sacrificial lifestyle and a love for others. The fish shows the trait of coming back after defeat or a resurrection. The goat profiles the biblical scapegoat, which indicates loyalty to others, strong friendship, and sacrificial love.

Capricorni View Stars
10 Car the Keel Carina Carinae View Stars
11 Cas the Seated Queen Cassiopeia

CASSIOPEIA. The captive delivered.

The enthroned woman. Arabic name El seder = the freed. In the Zodiac of Denderah Set = seated as queen. Arabic Ruchba = the enthroned. The brightest star is Schedir = the freed. The next, Kaph (Heb.) = the branch. (Isa. 54:5-8; 62:3-5. Jer. 31:3-12. Ps. 45:9-17. Isa. 61:10, 11.)

Cassiopeia (the Enthroned Woman)

In the last chapter we saw the woman bound; here we see the same woman freed, delivered, and enthroned.

ULUGH BEY says its Arabic name is El Seder, which means the freed.

In the Denderah Zodiac her name is Set, which means set, set up as Queen. ALBUMAZER says this constellation was anciently called "the daughter of splendour." This appears to be the meaning of the word Cassiopeia, the enthroned, the beautiful. The Arabic name is Ruchba, the enthroned This is also the meaning of its Chaldee name, Dat al cursa.

There are 55 stars in this constellation, of which five are of the 3rd magnitude, five of the 4th, etc.

This beautiful constellation passes vertically over Great Britain every day, and is easily distinguished by its five brightest stars, forming an irregular "W."

This brilliant constellation contains one binary star, a triple star, a double star, a quadruple star, and a large number of nebulae.

In the year 1572 Tycho Brahe discovered in this constellation, and very near the star k (under the arm of the chair), a new star, which shone more brightly than Venus. It was observed for nearly two years, and disappeared entirely in 1574.

The brightest star, a (in the left breast), is named Schedir (Hebrew), which means the freed. The next, b (in the top of the chair), likewise bears a Hebrew name--Caph, which means the branch; it is evidently given on account of the branch of victory which she bears in her hand.

She is indeed highly exalted, and making herself ready. Her hands, no longer bound, are engaged in this happy work. With her right hand she is arranging her robes, while with her left she is adorning her hair. She is seated upon the Arctic circle, and close by the side of Cepheus, the King.

This is "the Bride, the Lamb's wife, the heavenly city, the new Jerusalem," the "partakers of the heavenly calling."

He who has redeemed her is "the Lamb that was slain," and He addresses her thus:

"Thy Maker is thine husband;
The LORD of Hosts is His name;
And the Holy One of Israel is thy Redeemer;
The God of the whole earth shall He be called.
For the LORD hath called thee as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit,
Even a wife of youth when she is cast off, saith thy God.
For a small moment have I forsaken thee;
But with great mercies will I gather thee.
In overflowing wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment;
But with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, saith the LORD thy Redeemer."
Isaiah 54:5-8, RV

"Thou shalt be a crown of beauty in the hand of the LORD,
And a royal diadem in the hand of thy God,
Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken;
Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate;
But thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah (i.e. my delight is in her),
And thy land Beulah (i.e., married);
For the LORD delighteth in thee,
And thy land shall be married.
For as a young man marrieth a virgin,
So shall thy sons (Heb. thy Restorer) marry thee:
And as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride,
So shall thy God rejoice over thee."
Isaiah 62:3-5, RV

"The LORD hath appeared of old (or from afar) unto me, saying,
Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love;
Therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee.
Again will I build thee, and thou shalt be built, O Virgin of Israel...
He that scattered Israel will gather him,
And keep him as a shepherd doth his flock,
For the LORD hath ransomed Jacob,
And redeemed him from the hand of him that was stronger than he."
Jeremiah 31:3-12, RV

Can we close our eyes to the testimony of these scriptures--that Israel is the Bride of the Lamb? When we have all these, and more, why should we read "the Church" into thse ancient prophecies, which was the subject of a long-subsequent revelation, merely because (in Eph 5:25) Christ's love to His Church is compared to a husband's love for his wife? "Husbands, love your wives, even AS Christ also loved the Church." There is not a word here about the Church being His wife. On the contrary, it reveals the secret that the Church of Christ is to be the mystical "Body of Christ," part of the Husband in fact, "One new man" (Eph 2:15)! whereas restored Israel is to be the Bride of this "New Man," the Bride of Christ, the Lamb's wife! Blessed indeed it is to be united to Christ as a wife to a husband, but glorious beyond all description to be "one" with Christ Himself, part of His mystical Body.

If men had only realised the wondrous glory of this mystery, they would never have so wrongly divided the Word of Truth by interpreting Psalm 45 of this Mystical Christ. If we "rightly divide" it, we see at once that this Psalm is in harmony with all the Old Testament scriptures, which must be interpreted alike, and can be interpreted only of Israel however they may be applied.

Having spoken of the Godhead and glory of this King (faintly and in part foreshown by Cepheus), the Holy Spirit goes on in the latter part of the Psalm to speak of the Bride--the Queen:

"At Thy right hand doth stand the Queen in gold of Ophir,
Hearken, O daughter, and consdier, incline thine ear;
Forget also thine own people, and thy father's house;
So shall the King desire thy beauty; *
For He is thy Lord; and worship thou Him...
The King's daugher within the palace is all glorious;
Her clothing is inwrought with gold,
She shall be led unto the King in broidered work;
The virgins her companions ** that follow her shall be brought unto thee," etc.
Psalm 45:9-17, RV

* "Thy beauty; for it was perfect through My comeliness, when I put upon thee (Jerusalem), saith the LORD" (Eze 16:14).

** Those who interpret the Queen here of the Church as the Bride, interpret the "Virgins" in Matthew 25 of the Bride also. But how inconsistent! If the "Virgins" be the Church in Matthew 25, then where is the Bride? If the Queen is the Bride (the Church) in Psalm 45, then who are the "virgins her companions"? Both cannot be the correct interpretation. In fact, both are wrong, and hence the confusion. The Bride must be interpreted by the Old Testament scriptures, and the Prophecies which belong to Israel must not be robbed and given to the Church. They cannot be thus diverted without bringing confusion into the Scripture, and causing loss to our souls.

Then shall she sing her Magnificat:

"I will greatly rejoice in the LORD,
My soul shall be joyful in my God;
For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation,
He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness,
As a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments,
And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.
For as the earth bringeth forth her bud,
And as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it to spring forth;
So the Lord GOD [Adonai Jehovah] will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all the nations."
Isaiah 61:10, 11

This, then, is the truth set forth by this enthroned woman. The blessing founded on Atonement, and the Redemption wrought by the Lamb that was slain, result in a glorious answer to Israel's prayer, "Turn our captivity, O LORD" (Psa 126:4): when they that have "sown in tears shall reap in joy," and the LORD shall loosen her bonds, and place her enthroned by His side.

This, however, involves the destruction of her enemy, and this is what we see in the next section.

Cassiopeiae View Stars
12 Cen the Centaur Centaurus

CENTAURUS (with two natures). The despised sin-offering.

Al Beze, the despised (Isa. 53:3).

Centaurus (the Centaur)

It is the figure of a being with two natures. Jamieson, in his Celestial Atlas, 1822, says, "On the authority of the most accomplished Orientalist of our own times, the Arabic and Chaldaic name of this constellation is Bezeh." Now this Hebrew word Bezeh (and the Arabic Al Beze) means the despised. It is the very word used of this Divine sufferer in Isaiah 53:3, "He is DESPISED and rejected of men."

The constellation contains thirty-five stars. Two of the 1st magnitude, one of the 2nd, six of the 3rd, nine of the 4th, etc., which, together with the four bright stars in the CROSS make a brilliant show in southern latitudes.

The brightest star, a (in the horse's fore-foot), has come down to us with the ancient name of Toliman, which means the heretofore and hereafter, marking Him as the one "which is, and which was, and which is to come--the Almighty" (Rev 1:8). Sir John Herschell observed this star to be growing rapidly brighter. It may be, therefore, one of the changeable stars, and its name may be taken as an indication of the fact that it was known to the ancients.

Another name for the constellation was in Hebrew, Asmeath, which means a sin-offering (as in Isaiah 53:10).

The Greek name was Cheiron, which means the pierced, or who pierces. In the Greek fables Cheiron was renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine, music, athletics, and prophecy. All the most distinguished heroes of Greece are described as his pupils. He was supposed to be immortal, but he voluntarily agreed to die; and, wounded by a poisoned arrow (not intended for him) while in conflict with a wild boar, he transferred his immortality to Prometheus; whereupon he was placed amongst the stars.

We can easily see how this fable is the ignorant perversion of the primitive Revelation. The true tradition can be seen dimly through it, and we can discern Him of whom it spoke,--the all-wise, all-powerful Teacher and Prophet, who "went about doing good," yet "despised and rejected of men," laying down His life that others might live.

It is one of the lowest of the constellations, i.e. the farthest south from the northern centre. It is situated immediately over the CROSS, which bespeaks His own death; He is seen in the act of destroying the enemy.

Thus these star-pictures tell us that it would be as a child that the Promised Seed should come forth and grow and wax strong in spirit and be filled with wisdom (Luke 2:40); and that as a man having two natures He should suffer and die. Then the third and last section in this first chapter of this First Book goes on to tell of His second coming in glory.

Centauri View Stars
13 Cep the King Cepheus

CEPHEUS. The Deliverer coming to loosen.

The king. In the Zodiac of Denderah Pe-ku-hor = this one cometh to rule. Cepheus is Greek from the Heb. zemah = the Branch. Ethiopian name, Hyh = a king. The brightest star is Al Deramin = coming quickly. The next is Al Phirk = the Redeemer. The next, Al Rai' = who bruises or breaks. (Jer. 31:1.)


Cepheus (the Crowned King)

Here we have the presentation of a glorious king, crowned, and enthroned in the highest heaven, with a sceptre in his hand, and his foot planted on the very Polar Star itself.

His name in the Denderah Zodiac is Pe-ku-hor, which means this one cometh to rule.

The Greek name by which he is now known, Cepheus, is from the Hebrew, and means the branch, and is called by EURIPIDES the king.

An old Ethiopian name was Hyk, a king.

There are 35 stars, viz., three of the 3rd magnitude, seven of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (in the right shoulder), is called Al Deramin, which means coming quickly. The next, b (in the girdle), is named Al Phirk (Arabic), the Redeemer. The next g (in the left knee), is called Al Rai, which means who bruises or breaks.

It is impossible to mistake the truth which these names teach. The Greeks, though they had lost it, yet preserved a trace of it, even in their perversion of it; for they held that Cepheus was the father of Andromeda, and that Perseus was her husband.

Yes; this is the glorious King of Israel, the "King of kings, and Lord of lords." It is He who calls Israel His "son," and will yet manifest it to all the world.

In Jeremiah 21, after speaking of Israel's restoration, Jehovah says:

"At the same time, saith the LORD, will I be the God of all the families of Israel,
And they shall be My people...
For I am a father to Israel,
And Ephraim is My firstborn."

As He said to Moses: "Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn" (Exo 4:22).

Here is the foundation of Israel's blessing. True, it is now in abeyance, but "the LORD reigneth," and will in due time make good His Word, for

"The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever.
The thoughts of His heart to all generations."
Psalm 33:11

This leads us up to the last chapter of the Second Book, which shows us the fulfilment of all the prophecies concerning the Redeemed and the sure foundation on which their great hope of glory is based.

Cephei View Stars
14 Cet the Sea Monster Cetus

CETUS. The great enemy bound.

The sea monster. The great enemy bound (Rev. 20:10; cp. 20: 1-3). The name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Knem = subdued. The brightest star is Menkar = the enemy chained. The next is Diphda, or Deneb Kaitos = overthrown, or thrust down. Another is Mira = the rebel. (Job 41:1-10. Isa. 51:22, 23; 26:21-27:1. Ps. 74:12-14.)


Cetus (the Sea Monster)

When John sees the New Jerusalem, the Bride, the Lamb's wife (Rev 21:10), Satan has been bound already: for we read, a few veses before (20:1-3) "I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, that Old Serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him [and kept him bound] a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled."

This is what we see in the second section of the chapter--the second constellation in ARIES.

The picture is that of a great sea-monster, the largest of all the constellations. It is the natural enemy of fishes, hence it is placed here in connection with this last chapter, in which fishes are so prominent.

It is situated very low down among the constellations--far away towards the south or lower regions of the sky.

Its name in the Denderah Zodiac is Knem, which means subdued. It is pictured as a monstrous head, trodden under foot by the swine, the natural enemy of the serpent. The hawk also (another enemy of the serpent) is over this figure, crowned with a mortar, denoting bruising.

It consists of 97 stars, of which two are of the 2nd magnitude, eight of the 3rd, nine of the 4th, etc.

The names of the stars interpret for us infallibly the meaning of the picture.

The brightest star, a (in the upper mandible), is named Menikar, and means the bound or chained enemy. The next, b (in the tail), is called Diphda, or Deneb Kaitos, overthrown, or thrust down. The star o (in the neck) is named Mira, which means THE REBEL. Its names is ominous, for the star is one of the most remarkable. It is very bright, but it was not till 1596 that it was discovered to be variable. It disappears periodically seven times in six years! It continues at its brightest for fifteen days together. M. Bade says that during 334 days it shines with its greatest light, then it diminishes, till it entirely disappears for some time (to the naked eye). In fact, during that period it passes through several degrees of magnitude, both increasing and diminishing. Indeed its variableness is so great as to make it appear unsteady!

Here, then, is the picture of the Great Rebel as shown in the heavens. What is it, as written in the Word?

The Almighty asks man:

"Canst thou draw out Leviathan with a fish hook?
Or press down his tongue with a cord?
Canst thou put a rope into his nose?
Or pierce his jaw through with a hook?...
Shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?
None is so fierce that he dare stir him up."
Job 41:1-10, RV

But he whom man cannot bind can be bound by the Lamb, and He is seen with "the Band" that has bound the fishes, now in His hands, which he has fastened with a bright star to his neck, saying,

"Behold, I have taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling,
Even the dregs of the cup of My fury;
Thou shalt no more drink it again,
But I will put it into the hand of them that afflict thee."
Isaiah 51:22, 23

"Behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place
To punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity...
In that day the LORD, with His sore, and great, and strong sword,
Shall punish Leviathan, the piercing serpent,
And Leviathan, the crooked serpent;
And He shall slay the dragon that is in the sea."
Isaiah 26:21-27:1

"For God is my king of old,
Working salvation in the midst of the earth.
Thou didst divide (marg. Heb., break) the sea by Thy strength,
Thou brakest the heads of the dragons (RV marg., sea monsters) in the waters.
Thou brakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces."
Psalm 74:12-14

And this Second Book closes by revealing to us this glorious "Breaker."

Ceti View Stars
15 CMa the Great Dog Canis Major

CANIS MAJOR. The coming glorious prince.

Sirius, the Prince. In Zodiac of Denderah it is Apes = the head. In Persian Planisphere = a wolf (Heb. Ze'eb). The brightest star is Sirius = the Prince. In Persian Tistrya or Tistar = the chieftain. The next is Mirzam = the prince. Another is Wesen = the shining, and another Adhara = the glorious. Many other cognate names. (Isa. 9:6; 55:4. Dan. 8:23, 25.)

Canis Major (the Dog)
Canis Minor (the Second Dog)

This second constellation carries on the teaching, and tells of the glorious Prince who will thus subdue and reign.

In the Denderah Zodiac he is called Apes, which means the head. He is pictured as a hawk (Naz, caused to come forth, coming swiftly down). The hawk is the natural enemy of the serpent, and there it has on its head a pestle and mortar, indicating the fact that he shall crush the head of the enemy.

In the Persian planisphere it is pictured as a wolf, and is called Zeeb, which in Hebrew has the same meaning. Plutarch translates it Leader. In Arabic it means coming quickly.

Its ancient name and meaning must be obtained from the names of its stars which have come down to us. There are 64 altogether. Two are of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, four of the 3rd, four of the 4th, etc. Of these a (in the head) is the brightest in the whole heavens! It is called Sirius, the Prince as in Isaiah 9:6.

Sirius (our English "Sir" is derived from this word) was, by the ancients, always associated with great heat. And the hottest part of the year we still call "the dog days," though, through the variation as observed in different latitudes, and the precession of the equinoxes, its rising has long ceased to have any relation to those days. Virgil says that Sirius

"With pestilential heat infects the sky."

Homer spoke of it as a star

"Whose burning breath
Taints the red air with fevers, plagues, and death."

It is not, however, of its heat that its name speaks, but of the fact that it is the brightest of all the stars, as He of whom it witnesses is the "Prince of princes," "the Prince of the Kings of the earth."

Though this "Dog-Star" came to have an ill-omened association, it was not so in more ancient times. In the ancient Akkadian it is called Kasista, which means the Leader and Prince of the heavenly host. While (as Mr. Robert Brown, Jr, points out) "the Sacred Books of Persia contain many praises for the star Tistrya or Tistar (Sirius), 'the chieftain of the East.'" (Euphratean Stellar Researches)

The next star, b (in the left fore foot), speaks the same truth. It is named Mirzam, and means the prince or ruler. The star d (in the body) is called Wesen, the bright, the shining. The star e (in the right hind leg) is called Adhara, the glorious.

Other stars, not identified, bear their witness to the same fact. Their names are--Aschere (Hebrew), who shall come; Al Shira Al Jemeniya (Arabic), the Prince or chief of the right hand! Seir (Egyptian), the Prince; Abur (Hebrew), the mighty; Al Habor (Arabic), the mighty; Muliphen (Arabic), the leader, the chief.

Here there is no conflicting voice; no discord in the harmonious testimony to Him whose name is called "Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God...the Prince of Peace" (Isa 9:6).

The names of the stars have no meaning whatever as applied to an Egyptian Hawk, or a Greek Dog. But they are full of significance when we apply them to Him of whom Jehovah says:

"Behold, I have given Him for a witness to the people,
A LEADER and commander to the people."
Isaiah 55:4

This is "the Prince of princes" (Dan 8:23,25) against whom, "when transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance...shall stand up," "but he shall be broken without hand," for he shall be destroyed "with the brightness of His coming" (2 Thess 2:8). This is He who shall come forth "King of kings and Lord of Lords" (Rev 19:16).

But Sirius has a companion, and this brings us to--

Canis Majoris View Stars
16 CMi the Lesser Dog Canis Minor

CANIS MINOR. The exalted Redeemer.

The second Dog. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Sebak = conquering, victorious. The brightest star is Procyon = Redeemer. The next is Gomeisa (Arabic) = the burdened, bearing for others. Many other cognate names. (Isa. 49:24-26; 59:19, 20; 53:12.)

Canis Minor (the Second Dog)

The same facts are to be remembered concerning the Greek picture, and Latin name of this constellation.

The Egyptian name in the Denderah Zodiac is Sebak, which means conquering, victorious. It is represented as a human figure with a hawk's head and the appendage of a tail.

This small constellation has only 14 stars according to the Britannic catalogue. One of the 1st magnitude, one of the 2nd, one of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (in the body), is named Procyon, which means REDEEMER, and it tells us that this glorious Prince is none other than the one who was slain. Just as this chapter begins with two persons in one in the Sign (GEMINI), one victorious, the other wounded; so it ends with a representation of two princes, one of whom is seen triumphant and the other as the Redeemer. This is confirmed by the next star, b (in the neck), which is named Al Gomeisa (Arabic), the burthened, loaded, bearing for others. The names of the other stars still further confirm the great truth; viz., Al Shira or Al Shemeliya (Arabic), the prince or chief of the left hand, answering to the star in Sirius. One right, the other left, as the two united youths are placed. Al Mirzam, the prince or ruler; and Al Gomeyra, who completes or perfects.

This does, indeed, complete and perfect the presentation of this chapter: Messiah's reign as Prince of Peace; the enemy trodden under foot by the glorious "Prince of princes," who is none other than the glorified Redeemer.

This is also what is written in the Book:

"Shall the prey be taken from the mighty,
Or the lawful captives be delivered?
But thus saith the LORD,
Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away,
And the prey of the terrible shall be delivered:
For I will contend with him that contendeth with thee,
And I will save thy children.
And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh;
And they shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet wine;
And all flesh shall know that I the LORD am thy Saviour,
And thy REDEEMER--the Mighty One of Jacob."
Isaiah 49:24-26, RV

"When the enemy shall come in like a flood,
The Spirit of the LORD shall lift up a standard against him,
And the REDEEMER shall come to Zion."
Isaiah 59:19, 20

"And He shall divide the spoil with the strong,
Because He hath poured out His soul unto death."
Isaiah 53:12

Canis Minoris View Stars
17 Cnc the Crab Cancer

Cancer (the crab) - He is shown as the One holding onto the inheritance of the redeemed.

Messiah’s Redeemed Possessions
Crab: possessions held fast
Tenacity to hold on to the faith
Tenacious pursuer of the kingdom of God
Door—Jesus as Shepherd
Door of sheep
Great love for others
Strong pastoral heart of service
Ursa Minor—Jews; sheepfold
Ursa Major—Gentiles; Gate of sheepfold, closing
Argo—blessed homecoming

Cancer the crab symbolically shows tenacity to hold on to the faith. This constellation is also symbolized as a sheepfold, which shows Jesus as the Shepherd—the door of the sheep. This indicates a great love for others and a strong pastoral heart of service. This can also show a great heart for pressing into the kingdom of God (Philippians 3:14)—a tenacious pursuer.

ARGO. The pilgrim's arrival at home.

The Ship = the Pilgrims, safe at home. In the Egyptian Planisphere there are two ships (like the two folds). They occupy one-half of the south meridians. The brightest star is Canopus = the possession of Him Who cometh. Other names are Sephina = the multitude. Tureis = the possession. Asmidiska = the released who travel, &c. (Jer. 30:10, 11. Isa. 60:4-9.)


Argo (the Ship)

This is the celebrated ship of the Argonauts, of which HOMER sung nearly ten centuries before Christ. Sir Isaac Newton puts the expedition of the Argonauts shortly after the death of Solomon (about 975 BC). While Dr. Blair's chronology puts it at 1236 BC.

Whatever fables have gathered round the story there can be no doubt as to its great antiquity. Some think that the story had its origin in name, as well as in fact, from the Ark of Noah and its mysterious journey. All that is clear, when divested of mythic details, is that the sailors in that ship, after all their dangers, and toils, and battles were over, came back victorious to their own shores. The "golden fleece," for which the Argonauts went in search, tells of a treasure that had been lost. "Jason," the great captain, tells of Him who recovered it from the Serpent, which guarded it with ever-watchful eye, when none else was able to approach it. And thus, through the fables and myths of the Greeks, we can see the light primeval shine; and this light, once seen, lights up this Sign and its constellations, so that their teaching cannot be misunderstood.

ARATUS sings of Argo:

"Stern-foremost hauled; no mark of onward-speeding ship.
Sternward she comes, as vessels do
When sailors turn the helm
On entering harbour: all the oars back-water,
And gliding backward, to an anchor comes."

It tells of that blessed home-coming, when--

"The ransomed of the LORD shall return
And come to Zion with songs,
And everlasting joy upon their heads;
They shall obtain joy and gladness,
And sorrow and sighing shall flee away."
Isaiah 35:10

It tells of the glorious Jason (the Graeco-Judean equivalent of Joshua or Jesus), of whom it is asked:

"Art thou not it which hath cut Rahab,
And wounded the dragon?
Art thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep;
That hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over?
Therefore the redeemed of the LORD shall return,
And come with singing unto Zion," etc.
Isaiah 51:9-11

"For the LORD hath redeemed Jacob,
And ransomed him from the hand of him that was stronger than he.
Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion,
And shall flow together to the goodness of the LORD."
Jeremiah 31:11, 12

This is the return of the great emigrant-ship (Argo) and all its company of travellers (for this is the meaning of the word Argo).

In Kircher's Egyptian Planisphere Argo, is represented by two galleys (as we have two sheepfolds), whose prows are surmounted by rams' heads; and the stern of one of them ends in a fish's tail. One of the two occupies four segments of the sphere (from TAURUS to VIRGO), while the other occupies the four from LEO to CAPRICORNUS. One half of the southern meridians is occupied with these galleys and their construction and decoratons. Astronomers tell us that they carry us back, the one to the period when the Bull opened the year (to which time VIRGIL refers); and the other to the same epoch, when the summer solstice was in LEO--"an era greatly antecedent to the Argonautic expedition. How else, they ask, do we account for the one ship having her prow in the first Decan of TAURUS, and her poop in the last decan of LEO? or for one galley being freighted with the installed Bull, and the other with the solstitial Lion?" (Jamieson's Scientific Display, &c.)

These are the words of an astronomer who knows nothing whatever of our interpretation of the heavens which is set forth in this work.

It will indeed be a large vessel, the true Argo, with its company of travellers, "a great multitude which no man can number." All this is indicated by the immense size of the constellation, as well as by the large number of its stars. There are 64 stars in Argo (reckoning by the Britannic catalogue); one of the 1st magnitude, six of the 2nd, nine of the 3rd, nine of the 4th, etc. Only a small part of the ship's poop is visible in Britain.

Its brightest star, a (near the keel), is called Canopus or Canobus, which means the possession of Him who cometh. Other star-names are--Sephina, the multitude or abundance; Tureis, the possession; Asmidiska, the released who travel; Soheil (Arabic), the desired; and Subilon, the Brach.

Is not all this exactly in harmony with the rest of this sign? And is not this what is written in the Book?

"Therefore, fear thou not, O My servant Jacob, saith the LORD;
Neither be dismayed, O Israel:
For, lo, I will save thee from afar,
And thy seed from the land of their captivity;
And Jacob shall return and be in rest,
And be quiet, and none shall make him afraid,
For I am with thee, saith the LORD, to save thee."
Jeremiah 30:10, 11

"Lift up thine eyes round about, and see;
All they gather themselves together, they come to thee;
Thy sons shall come from far,
And thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side,
Then thou shalt see, and flow together,
And thine heart shall fear and be enlarged;
Because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee...
Who are these that fly as a cloud?
And as doves to their windows?
Surely the isles shall wait for me,
And the SHIPS of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far."
Isaiah 60:4, 5, 8, 9

The whole chapter (Isa 60) should be read if we wish to understand the great teaching of this Sign, which tells of Messiah's secured possessions, the safe folding of His blood-bought flock, the blessed return of His pilgrims, and their abundant entrance into everlasting rest.

"There is a blessed home
Beyond this land of woe,
Where trials never come,
Nor tears of sorrow flow;
Where faith is lost in sight,
And patient love is crowned,
And everlasting light
Its glory throws around.

O joy, all joys beyond,
To see the Lamb who died,
And count each sacred wound
In hands, and feet, and side;
To give to Him the praise
Of every triumph won,
And sing through endless days
The great things He hath done.

Look up, ye saints of God,
Nor fear to tread below
The path your Saviour trod
Of daily toil and woe;
Wait but a little while
In uncomplaining love,
His own most gracious smile
Shall welcome you above."

Cancri View Stars
18 Col the Dove Columba Columbae View Stars
19 Com the Bernice's Hair Coma Berenices

COMA (= The desired). The woman and child the desired of all nations (in the most ancient Zodiacs).

(Hag. 2:7). Num. 24:17. (Egyptian Shes-nu = the desired son.)

Coma (the Desired)

The first constellation in VIRGO explains that this coming "Branch" will be a child, and that He should be the "Desire of all nations."

The ancient name of this constellation is Comah, the desired, or the longed for. We have the word used by the Holy Spirit in this very connection, in Haggai 2:7--"The DESIRE of all nations shall come."

The ancient Zodiacs pictured this constellation as a woman with a child in her arms. ALBUMAZAR * (or ABU MASHER), an Arabian astronomer of the eighth century, says, "There arises in the first Decan **, as the Persians, Chaldeans, and Egyptians, and the two HERMES and ASCALIUS teach, a young woman whose Persian name denotes a pure virgin, sitting on a throne, nourishing an infant boy (the boy, I say), having a Hebrew name, by some nations called IHESU, with the signification IEZA, which in Greek is called CHRISTOS."

* A Latin translation of his work is in the British Museum Library. He says the Persians understood these signs, but that the Indians perverted them with inventions.

** The constellations are called Decans. The word means a part, and is used of the three parts into which each sign is divided, each of which is occupied by a constellation.

But this picture is not found in any of the modern maps of the stars. There we find today a woman's wig! It appears that BERENICE, the wife of EUERGETES (PTOLEMY III), king of Egypt in the third century BC, when her husband once went on a dangerous expedition, vowed to consecrate her fine head of hair to Venus if he returned in safety. Her hair, which was hung up in the Temple of Venus, was subsequently stolen, and to comfort BERENICE, CONON, an astronomer of Alexandria (BC 283-222), gave it out that Jupiter had taken it and made it a constellation!

This is a good example of how the meaning of other constellations have been perverted (ignorantly or intentionally). In this case, as in others, the transition from ancient to more modern languages helped to hide the meaning. The Hebrew name was COMA (desired). But the Greeks had a word for hair, Co-me. this again is transferred to the Latin coma, and thus "Coma Berenice" (The hair of Berenice) comes down to us today as the name of this constellation, and gives us a woman's wig instead of that Blessed One, "the Desire of all Nations."

In this case, however we are able to give absolute proof that this is a perversion.

The ancient Egyptian name for this constellation was Shes-nu, the desired son!

The Zodiac in the Temple of Denderah, in Egypt, going back at least 2000 years BC, has no trace of any hair, but it has the figure of a woman and child.

Even Shakespeare understood the truth about this constellation picture, which has been so long covered by modern inventions. In his Titus Andronicus he speaks of an arrow being shot up to heaven to the "Good boy in Virgo's lap."

The constellation itself is very remarkable. Others contain one or two stars of the first or second magnitude, and then a greater or less variety of lesser stars; but this is peculiar from having no one very bright star, but contains so many stars of the 4th and 5th magnitudes. It contains 43 stars altogether, ten being of the 4th magnitude, and the remainder of the 5th, 6th, etc.

It was in all probability the constellation of Coma in which "the Star of Bethlehem" appeared. There was a traditional prophecy, well-known in the East, carefully preserved and handed down, that a new star would appear in this sign when He whom it foretold should be born.

This was, doubtless, referred to in the prophecy of Balaam, which would thus receive a double fulfilment, first of the literal "Star," and also of the person to whom it referred. The Lord said by Balaam (Num 24:17),

"There shall come * a star out of Jacob,
And a sceptre shall rise out of Israel."

* I.e., come forth (as in the RV). At is rendered in Genesis 3:24 "There shall come forth a star at or over the inheritance or possessions of Jacob," thus indicating the locality which would be on the meridian of this star.

Thomas Hyde, an eminent Orientalist (1636-1703), writing on the ancient religion of the Persians, quotes from ABULFARAGIUS (an Arab Christian Historian, 1126-1286), who says that ZOROASTER, or ZERDUSHT, the Persian, was a pupil of Daniel the Prophet, and that he predicted to the Magians (who were the astronomers of Persia), that when they should see a new star appear it would notify the birth of a mysterious child, whom they were to adore. It is further stated in the Zend Avesta that this new star was to appear in the sign of the Virgin. Some have supposed that this passage is not genuine. But whether it was interpolated before or after the event, it is equally good evidence for our purpose here. For if it was written before the event, it is evidence of the prophetic announcement; and if it was interpolated after the event it is evidence of the historic fact

The Book of Job shows us how Astronomy flourished in Idumea; and the Gospel according to Matthew shows that the Persian Magi, as well as others, were looking for "the Desire of all nations."

New stars have appeared again and again. It was in 125 BC that a star, so bright as to be seen in the day-time, suddenly appeared. It was this that caused HIPPARCHUS to draw up his catalogue of stars, which has been handed down to us by PTOLEMY (150 AD).

This new star would show the latitude, passing at that time immediately overhead at midnight, every twenty-four hours; while the prophecy would give the longitude as the land of Jacob. Having these two factors, it would be only a matter of observation, and easy for the Magi to find the place where it would be vertical, and thus to locate the very spot of the birth of Him of whom it was the sign, for they emphatically called it "His Star." There is a beautiful tradition which relates how, in their difficulty, on their way from Jerusalem to find the actual spot under the Zenith of this star, these Magi sat down beside David's "Well of Bethlehem" to refresh themselves. There they saw the star reflected in the clear water of the well. Hence it is written that "when they saw the star they rejoiced with exceeding joy," for they knew they were at the very spot and place of His appearing whence He was to "come forth."

There can be little doubt that it was a new star. In the first place a new star is no unusual phenomenon. In the second place the tradition is well supported by ancient Christian writers. One speaks of its "surpassing brightness." Another (IGNATIUS, Bishop of Antioch, AD 69) says, "At the appearance of the Lord a star shone forth brighter than all the other stars." IGNATIUS, doubtless, had this from those who had actually seen it! PRUDENTIUS (4th century AD) says that not even the morning star was so fair. Archbishop TRENCH, who quotes these authorities, says "This star, I conceive, as so many ancients and moderns have done, to have been a new star in the heavens."

One step more places this new star in the constellation of COMA, and with new force makes it indeed "His star"--the "Sign" of His "coming forth from Bethlehem." will it be "the sign of the Son of Man in heaven" (Matt 24:30) when He shall "come unto" this world again to complete the wondrous prophecies written of Him in the heavenly and earthly Revelations? *

* It ought also to be noted that in the preceding year there were three conjunctions of the planets Jupiter and Saturn, at the end of May and October, and at the beginning of December. Kepler (1571-1631) was the first to point this out, and his calculations have been confirmed by the highest authorities. These conjunctions occurred in the sign of PISCES: and this sign, according to all the ancient Jewish authorities (Josephus, Abarbanel, Eliezer, and others), has special reference to Israel. The conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, they hold, always marked the occurrence of some even favourable to Israel; while Kepler, calculating backwards, found that this astronomical phenomenon always coincided with some great historical crisis, viz.: the Revelation to Adam, the birth of Enoch, the Revelation to Noah, the birth of Moses, the birth of Cyrus, the birth of Christ, the birth of Charlemagne, and the birth of Luther.

Thus does the constellation of COMA reveal that the coming "Seed of the woman" was to be a child born, a son given.

But He was to be more: He was to be God and man--two natures in one person! This is the lesson of the next picture.

Comae Berenices View Stars
20 CrA the Southern Crown Corona Australis Coronae Australis View Stars
21 CrB the Northern Crown Corona Borealis

CORONA. The Crown bestowed.

Heb. 'atarah, a royal crown. Arab. Al iclil, a jewel. Its brightest star = Al phena, the shining one.

Corona (the Crown)

"Wherefore God also hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow."

This is what is foreshown by this concluding section of the second chapter. Each chapter ends with glory. As in the written Word of God, we frequently have the glory of the Second Coming mentioned without any allusions to the sufferings of the First Coming, but we never have the First Coming in humiliaton mentioned without an immediate reference to the glory of the Second Coming.

So here, the CROSS is closely followed by the CROWN! True, "we see not yet all things put under Him, but we see Jesus...for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honour" (Heb 2:9).

Yes, "the crowning day is coming," and all heaven shall soon resound with the triumphant song, "Thou art worthy...for Thou wast slain and hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood" (Rev 5:9).

The shameful Cross will be followed by a glorious crown, and "every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father."

"Mighty Victor, reign for ever,
Wear the crown so dearly won;
Never shall Thy people, never
Cease to sing what Thou hast done.
Thou hast fought Thy people's foes;
Thou wilt heal Thy people's woes!"

The Hebrew name for the constellation is Atarah, a royal crown, and its stars are known today in the East by the plural, Ataroth!

Its Arabic name is Al Iclil, an ornament, or jewel.

It has 21 stars: one of the 2nd magnitude and six of the 4th. It is easily known by the stars J, b, a, g, d and e, which form a crescent.

Its brightest star, a, has the Arabic name of Al Phecca, the shining.

Thus ends this solemn chapter of LIBRA, which describes the great work of Redemption, beginning with the Cross and ending with the Crown. The Redeemer's work of Atonement is most blessedly set forth, and He alone is seen as the substitute for lost sinners.

"What wondrous love, what mysteries
In this appointment shine!
My breaches of the law are His,
And His obedience mine."

cuh-ROE-nee bor-ee-AL-iss3 View Stars
22 Crt the Cup Crater

CRATER. The cup of wrath poured out.

The Cup [of wrath poured out]. (Ps. 75:8; 11:6. Rev. 14:10; 16:19.) The constellation has thirteen stars, (cp. Ap. 10).

Hydra (the Serpent)
Crater (the Cup)
Corvus (the Raven)

"God is the Judge.
He putteth down one, and setteth up another,
And the wine is red; it is full of mixture,
And He poureth out of the same:
But the dregs thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall wring them out and drink them."
Psalm 75:8

"Upon the wicked he shall rain snares,
Fire and brimstone, and a horrible tempest:
Psalm 11:6

This is no fabled wine-cup of Bacchus; but it is "The cup of His indignation" (Rev 14:10); "The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath" (Rev 16:19). This is what we see set forth in this constellation. The Cup is wide and deep, and fastened on by the stars to the very body of the writhing serpent. The same stars which are in the foot of the Cup form part of the body of Hydra, and are reckoned as belonging to both constellations.

This Cup has the significant number of thirteen stars (the number of Apostacy). The two--Al Ches (a), which means the Cup, and (b)--determine the bottom of the Cup.

Crateris View Stars
23 Cru the Southern Cross Crux

CRUX. The Cross endured.

Heb. karath, cut off (Dan. 9:26).

Crux (the Cross)

The Hebrew name was Adom, which means cutting off, as in Daniel 9:26 "After threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off." The last letter of the Hebrew alphabet was called Tau, which was anciently made in the form of a cross. This letter is called Tau, and means a mark; especially a boundary mark, a limit or finish. And it is the last letter, which finishes the Hebrew alphabet to this day.

The Southern Cross was just visible in the latitude of Jerusalem at the time of the first coming of our Lord to die. Since then, through the gradual recession of the Polar Star, it has not been seen in northern latitudes. It gradually disappeared and became invisible at Jerusalem when the Real Sacrifice was offered there; and tradition, which preserved its memory, assured travellers that if they could go far enough south it would be again seen. Dante sang of "the four stars never beheld but by the early race of men." It was not until the sixteenth century had dawned that missionaries and voyagers, doubling the Cape for the first time, and visiting the tropics and southern seas, brought back the news of "a wonderful cross more glorious than all the constellations of the heavens."

It is a small asterism, containing only about five stars, viz., one of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, one of the 3rd, and one of the 4th. Four of these are in the form of a cross.

Long before the Christian Era this sign of the Cross had lost its true meaning, and had been perverted in Babylon and Egypt as it has since been desecrated by Rome. The Persians and Egyptians worshipped it. The cakes made and eaten in honour of the Queen of Heaven were marked with it. This heathen custom Rome has adopted and adapted in her Good Friday cakes, which are thus stamped. But all are alike ignorant of what it means, viz., "IT IS FINISHED."

In Egypt, and in the earliest times, it was the sign and symbol of life. Today, Romanists use it as the symbol of death! But it means life! Natural life given up, and eternal life procured. Atonement, finished, perfect, and complete; never to be repeated, or added to. All who partake of its benefits in Christ now, in grace, by faith "ARE made nigh by the blood of Christ" (Eph 2:13), and of them Jesus says, "He that heareth my voice, and believeth on Him that sent me HATH everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment; but IS PASSED from death unto life" (John 5:24). So perfect and complete is the work which Jesus finished on the Cross that we cannot seek to add even our repentance, faith, tears, or prayers, without practically asserting that the work of Christ is not finished, and is not sufficient!

The Hebrew names of this constellation--Adom and Tau--rebuke our Pharisaic spirit, which is the relic and essence of all false religions, and points to the blessed fact that the Sacrifice was offered "once for all," and the atoning work of Redemption completely finished on Calvary.

"Tis finished! the Messiah dies!
Cut off for sins, but not His own;
Accomplished is the sacrifice,
The great redeeming work is done."

In the ancient Egyptian Zodiac of Denderah this first Decan of LIBRA is represented as a lion with his tongue hanging out of his mouth, as if in thirst, and a female figure holding a cup out to him. Under his fore feet is the hieroglyphic symbol of running water. What is all this but "the Lion of the tribe of Judah" brought down "into the dust of death," and saying "I am poured out like strength is dried up" (Psa 22:13-18) "I thirst" (John 19:28) "and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink" (Psa 69:21)?

The Egyptian name of this Lion, however, points to his ultimate triumph, for it is called Sera, that is, victory!

This brings us to--

Crucis View Stars
24 Crv the Crow Corvus

CORVUS. The birds of prey devouring.

The Raven. The birds of prey devouring. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah, Her-na = the enemy breaking up. There are nine stars (see Ap. 10). The brightest star is Chiba (Num. 23:8) = accursed. Another is Minchar al Gorab = the raven tearing to pieces.

Hydra (the Serpent)
Crater (the Cup)
Corvus (the Raven)

Here is the final scene of judgment. We have had Zeeb, the Wolf; now we have Oreb, the Raven. Her-na is its name in the Denderah Zodiac. Her, means the enemy; and Na, means breaking up or failing. That is to say, this scene represents the breaking up of the enemy.

There are nine stars (the number of judgment) in this constellation. The bright star a (in the eye) is called Al Chibar (Arabic), joining together, from the Hebrew Chiba (Num 23:8), which means accursed. This star, then, tells of the curse inflicted. The star b (in the right wing) is called Al Goreb (Arabic), from Hebrew Oreb, the Raven. A third star is named Minchar al Gorab (Arabic), and means the Raven tearing to pieces.

This brings us to the end. There is nothing beyond this. Nothing remains to be told. We know from the Word of God that--

"The eye that mocketh at his father,
And despiseth to obey his mother,
The ravens of the valley shall pick it out."
Proverbs 30:17

We remember how David said to the Giant Goliath--a type of this enemy of God's people--"I will smite thee, and take thy head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth" (1 Sam 17:46).

When the great day of this judgment comes, an angel standing in the sun will cry "to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come, and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great" (Rev 19:17,18).

And after these awful words shall be fulfilled, in the closing words of the prophecy of Isaiah, Jehovah foretells us how--

"They shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against Me;
For their worm shall not die,
Neither shall their fire be quenched;
And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."

This is the teaching of the whole Sign of LEO! It is all summed up in Jeremiah 25:30-33

"Therefore prophesy against them all these words, and say unto them,
The LORD shall roar from on high,
And utter His voice from His holy habitation;
He shall mightily roar upon His habitation;
He shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes,
Against all the inhabitants of the earth.
A noise shall come even to the ends of the earth;
For the LORD hath a controversy with the nations,
He will plead with all flesh;
He will give them that are wicked to the sword, saith the LORD.
Thus saith the LORD of hosts,
Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation,
And a great whirlwind shall be raised up from the coasts of the earth.
And the slain of the LORD shall be at that day from one end of the earth
Even to the other end of the earth;
They shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried;
They shall be dung upon the ground."

Here is the conclusion of the whole matter! Here is the final triumph of the Son of Man in the consummated victory of the Seed of the woman: "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing" (Rev 5:12).

"O what a bright and blessed world
This groaning earth of ours will be,
When from its throne the tempter hurled,
Shall leave it all, O Lord, to Thee!
But brighter far that world above,
Where we, as we are known, shall know;
And, in the sweet embrace of love,
Reign o'er this ransomed earth below.
O blessed Lord! with longing eyes
That blissful hour we wait to see;
While every worm or leaf that dies
Tells of the curse, and calls for Thee.
Come, Saviour! Then o'er all below
Shine brightly from Thy throne above,
Bid heaven and earth Thy glory know,
And all creation feel Thy love."

Man has ever sought to rob Christ of His glory. He has long since done his best to obliterate His name and His work from the Revelation which had been written in the stars of light. When He humbled Himself, and came as the promised Seed of the woman, men "saw no beauty in Him that they should desire Him." And these were religious men. It was religious men, not the common rabble, whom the Old Serpent made use of to wound Him in the heel. The Devil could not touch Him himself; he must use them as his instruments; and it was only religious men that could be so used.

It was the "chief priests and scribes," men learned in the Scriptures, whose very knowledge of the Word was used to compass His death amongst the babes at Bethlehem (Matt 2:4-6).

It was the same priests and scribes who were used to put Him to death, and give the long-prophesied wound in the heel.

Religion without Christ is enmity against God! Knowledge of the Scriptures where the heart is not subject to Christ, and where Christ is not seen in them, is powerless and lifeless. It is true of the Scriptures, as it will be of the heavenly Jerusalem--"THE LAMB IS THE LIGHT THEREOF" (Rev 21:23).

The Church of Rome has been used of the great enemy to rob the Lamb of God of His promised glory. JEROME, in his Latin translation of the Bible (405 AD), wrote "ipse," HE, in Genesis 3:15, as the "bruiser of the serpent's head." And, in spite of the fact that JEROME himself so quotes it in his commentary, and that it is masculine in all the other ancient translations of the Bible, Rome has first corrupted JEROME's Vulgate by changing the "e" into "a," and putting "ipsa" (she) instead of "ipse" (He); then she has so translated this corruption and perpetuated this perversion in various languages! So that in all her versions, in her pictures and statues, in the decree of Pope Pius IX, which promulgated the dogma of the "immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary," this lie of the Old Serpent has been foisted on unnumbered thousands of deluded souls, who have thereby been deceived into putting Mary in the place of Jesus; the "co-Redemptress" in the place of the Redeemer; the creature in the place of the Creator; the woman in the place of the woman's Seed;--until the outcome is reached by emblazoning, in huge gilt letters, on the outside of a large church in Rathmines, Dublin, "MARIAE PECCATORUM REFUGIUM," to Mary the Refuge of Sinners!

So complete has been the success of the subtlety of the Serpent, that he has beguiled thousands of Protestants to unite in circulating these corrupted versions as the Word of God, thus giving currency to the Devil's lie. This is done on the plea of expediency, in order that these versions might come to many as Protestant truth instead of Popish error; but thus misleading those who were seeking for light, while confirming Papists in their darkness.

But through all the "wisdom of the Serpent" we can detect his lie. It is very thinly veiled, and the Old Serpent has not succeeded in blinding the eyes which the Spirit of God has opened. True, we see in all Rome's pictures and statues the foot of Mary on the Serpent's head, but the foot is not coming down, nor is the head crushed! Rather is the woman's foot resting on its head; and the woman herself supported by the Serpent.

The whole system of Mary-anity is thus seen to be the outcome of the Serpent's wisdom in opposition to the true Christ-ianity.

How different are the primeval star-pictures of the heavens. There, the club is lifted up, the foot is coming down, yea, the foot is actually planted upon the enemy, treading the Scorpion under foot.

Rome may corrupt the words of the Book, but she cannot touch the stars of heaven! The Devil himself cannot move them from their places. He may choose and use his servants and agents for corrupting the Scriptures written in the Book, but he cannot change the Revelation of the stars.

There,--no woman's foot is seen upon the Serpent's head! There,--no woman usurps the place of the all-glorious Redeemer!

In Ophiuchus we see HIM in dread conflict with the Serpent, and we see HIS foot upon the Scorpion's heart (SCORPIO). We see HIM, the Risen Lamb (ARIES), binding Cetus, the great Monster of the Deep; we see HIM in the glorious Orion, whose foot is coming down on the enemy's head (Lepus); we see HIM in the Lion of the Tribe of Judah (LEO), about to tread down that Old Serpent (Hydra) the Devil; we see HIM in the mighty Hercules, who has His foot on the head of the Dragon (DRACO), and His up-lifted club about to inflict the long-threatened blow; we see HIM crowned in Cepheus, with all His enemies subdued, and His right foot planted upon the Polar Star!

True, we do see a WOMAN in this heavenly and Divine revelation; for there are four women. Two are connected with the REDEEMER, and two with the REDEEMED. The Redeemer is seen in the one (VIRGO) as the "promised Seed"; in the other (Coma), He is seen as the child born, the Son given. The redeemed are represented in one as a captive chained (Andromeda), with no power to wage conflict with an enemy, but a prey to every foe; in the other (Cassiopeia), she is enthroned, with no necessity for conflict. For with one hand she waves the palm of a victory which another (Perseus) has wrought on her behalf, while with her right hand she is preparing and making herself ready for "the marriage of the Lamb."

Thus pure and undefiled is this primeval fountain of Divine truth. Thus harmonious is it with the written Word of God. And He who gave them both to enlighten a dark world which lieth in the power of this wicked one, has filled both with one subject--"The sufferings of Christ and the glory that should follow."

These are set forth by the Holy Spirit in a double sevenfold expansion of the prophetic promise of Genesis 3:15, giving seven steps in His humiliation and seven in His glorification (Phil 2:5-11 *).

* The passage consists really of two members, each of which is arranged as an introversion, where the subject of 1 corresponds to 7; 2 corresponds to 6; etc.

1.Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery (a thing to be grasped at and held) to be equal with God;
2.But made Himself of no reputation (Gr. emptied Himself).
3.And took upon Him the form of a servant.
4.And was made in the likeness of men:
5.And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself.
6.And became obedient unto death,
7.Even the death of the cross.

1.God also hath highly exalted Him,
2.And given Him a name which is above every name:
3.That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow,
4.Of things in heaven,
5.And things on earth,
6.And things under the earth;
7.And that every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. Amen.

"Come, then, and, added to Thy many crowns,
Receive yet one, the crown of all the earth,
Thou who alone art worthy! It was thine
By ancient covenant, ere Nature's birth;
And Thou hast made it Thine by purchase since,
And overpaid its value with Thy blood.
Thy saints procalim Thee king; and in their hearts
Thy title is engraven with a pen
Dipp'd in the fountain of eternal love.
Thy saints proclaim Thee king; and Thy delay
Gives courage to their foes, who, could they see
The dawn of Thy last advent, long desired,
Would creep into the bowels of the hills,
And flee for safety to the falling rocks."

"Come, then, and, added to Thy many crowns,
Receive yet one, as radiant as the rest,
Due to Thy last and most effectual work,
Thy Word fulfilled, the conquest of a world."

Corvi View Stars
25 CVn the Hunting Dogs Canes Venatici Canum Venaticorum View Stars
26 Cyg the Swan Cygnus

CYGNUS. The Blesser surely returning.

In the Zodiac of Denderah, Tes-ark = this from afar. A mighty bird, not falling dead like Aquila. Brightest star Deneb = the Judge; called also Adige = flying swiftly. The second, Al Bireo = flying quickly. Two others: Azel = who goes and returns quickly, and Fafage = gloriously shining forth.

Cygnus (the Swan)

This constellation repeats, emphasises, and affirms this glorious truth. It has to do with the Great Blesser and His speedy return, as is testified by all the ancient names connected with it.

In the Denderah Zodiac it is named Tes-ark, which means this from afar.

It is a most brilliant and gorgeous asterism of 81 stars; one of the 1st or 2nd, six of the 3rd, twelve of the 4th magnitude, etc. It contains variable stars, five double stars, and one quadruple. The star marekd "61 Cygni" is known as one of the most wonderful in the whole heavens. It consists of two stars which revolve about each other, and yet have a progressive motion common to each!

This mighty bird is not falling dead, like Aquila, but it is flying swiftly in mid-heaven. It is coming to the earth, for it is not so much a bird of the air, but a bird peculiarly belonging to both the earth and the waters.

Its brightest star a (between the body and the tail), is called Deneb (like another in CAPRICORNUS), and means the judge. It is also called Adige, flying swiftly, and thus at once it is connected with Him who cometh to judge the earth in righteousness.

The star b (in the beak) is named Al Bireo (Arabic), flying quickly.

The star g (in the body) is called Sadr (Hebrew), who returns as in a circle.

The two stars in the tail, now marked in the maps as p I and p II, are named Azel, who goes and returns quickly; and Fafage, gloriously shining forth.

The teaching, then, of the whole sign of AQUARIUS is clear and complete. The names of the stars explain the constellations, and the names of the constellations explain the sign, so that we are left in no doubt.

By His atoning death (as set forth in CAPRICORNUS) He has purchased and procured unspeakable blessings for His redeemed. This sign (AQUARIUS) tells of those blessings being poured forth, and of the speedy return of Him who is to bring "rivers of blessing," and to fill this earth with blessing and glory "as the waters cover the sea."

"Then take, LORD, thy kingdom, and come in Thy glory;
Make the scene of Thy sorrows the place of Thy throne,
Complete all the blessing which ages in story
Have told of the triumphs so justly Thine own."

Cygni View Stars
27 Del the Dolphin Delphinus

DELPHINUS. The dead One rising again.

Always a fish full of life, the head upwards. Heb. Dalaph = the pouring out of water. Arab. Dalaph = coming quickly.

Delphinus (the Dolphin)

This is a bright cluster of 18 stars, five of which are of the 3rd magnitude. It is easily distinguished by the four brightest, which are in the head.

It is always figured as a fish full of life, and always with the head upwards, just as the eagle is always with the head downwards. The great peculiar characteristic of the dolphin is its rising up, leaping, and springing out of the sea.

When we compare this with the dying goat and falling eagle, what conclusion can we come to but that we have here the filling in of the picture, and the completion of the whole truth set forth in CAPRICORNUS?

Jesus "died and rose again." Apart from His resurrection His death is without result. In His conflict with the enemy it is only His coming again in glory which is shown forth. But here, in connection with His people, with the multitudes of His redeemed, Resurrection is the great and important truth. He is "the first-fruits of them that slept"; then He, too, is here represented as a fish. He who went down into the waters of death for His people; He who could say "All thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (Psa 42:7), He it is who rises up again from the dead, having died on account of the sins of His redeemed, and risen again on account of their justification (Rom 4:25).

This is the picture here. In the Persian planisphere there seems to be a fish and a stream of water. The Egyptian has a vessel pouring out water.

The ancient names connected with this constellation are Dalaph (Hebrew), pouring out of water; Dalaph (Arabic), coming quickly; Scalooin (Arabic), swift (as the flow of water); Rotaneb or Rotaneu (Syriac and Chaldee), swiftly running.

Thus, in this first chapter of the Second Book we see the great truth of Revelation set forth; and we learn how the great Blessings of Redemption were procured. This truth cannot be more eloquently or powerfully presented than in the language of Dr. Seiss (Joseph A. Seiss, The Gospel in the Stars):

This strange goat-fish, dying in its head, but living in its afterpart--falling as an eagle pierced and wounded by the arrow of death, but springing up from the dark waves with the matchless vigour and beauty of the dolphin--sinking under sin's condemnation, but rising again as sin's conqueror--developing new life out of death, and hearlding a new springtime out of December's long drear nights--was framed by no blind chance of man. The story which it tells is the old, old story on which hangs the only availing hope that ever came, or ever can come, to Adam's race. To what it signifies we are for ever shut up as the only saving faith. In that dying Seed of the woman we must see our sin-bearer and the atonement for our guilt, or die ourselves unpardoned and unsanctified. Through His death and bloodshedding we must find our life, or the true life, which alone is life, we never can have."

"Complete atonement Thou hast made,
And to the utmost farthing paid
Whate'er Thy people owed:
Nor can His wrath on me take place,
If sheltered in His righteousness,
And sprinkled with the blood.

If my discharge Thou hast procured,
And freely in my room endured
The whole of wrath divine,
Payment God cannot twice demand,
First at my bleeding Surety's hand,
And then again at mine.

Turn, then, my soul, unto Thy rest;
The merits of Thy great High Priest
Have bought thy liberty;
Trust in His efficacious blood,
Nor fear thy banishment from God,
Since Jesus died for thee."

Delphini View Stars
28 Dra the Dragon Draco

DRACO. The dragon cast down.

Ends the first book. The dragon cast down. CETUS ends the second book. Leviathan bound. HYDRA ends the third book. The old serpent destroyed. Draco = trodden on. (Ps. 91:13; 74:12-14. Isa. 27:1). In Zodiac of Denderah it is a serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius and called Her-fent = the serpent accursed. The brightest star called Thuban = the subtle.

Draco (the Dragon cast down)

Each of the three great books concludes with this same foreshowing of Apocalyptic truth. The same great enemy is referred to in all these pictures. He is the Serpent; he is the Dragon; "the great dragon, that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan" (Rev 12:9). The Serpent represents him as the Deceiver; the Dragon, as the Destroyer.

This First Book concludes with the Dragon being cast down from heaven.

The Second Book concludes with Cetus, the Sea Monster, Leviathan, bound.

The Third Book concludes with Hydra, the Old Serpent, destroyed.

Here, at the close of the First Book, we see not merely a dragon, but the Dragon cast down! That is the point of this great star-picture.

No one has ever seen a dragon; but among all nations (especially in China and Japan), and in all ages, we find it described and depicted in legend and in art. Both Old and New Testaments refer to it, and all unite in connecting with it one and the same great enemy of God and man.

It is against him that the God-Man--"the Son of God--goes forth to war." It is for him that the eternal fires are prepared. It is he who shall shortly be cast down from the heavens preparatory to his completed judgment. It is of him we read, "The great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out and his angels with him. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ; for the accuser of our brethren is cast down" (Rev 12:9,10).

It is of him that David sings--

"God is my king of old,
Working salvation in the midst of the earth...
Thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.
Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces." Psalm 74:12-14

Of him also the Spirit causes Isaiah to say, "In that day, shall this song be sung in the land of Judah";

"In that day the LORD, with his sore, and great, and strong sword,
Shall punish leviathan the piercing (RV, swift) serpent,
Even leviathan that crooked serpent;
And he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea." Isiah 26:1; 27:1

This is exactly what is foreshadowed by this constellation of Draco. Its name is from the Greek, and means trodden on, as in the Septuagint of Psalm 91:13--"The dragon shalt thou trample under feet," from the Hebrew Dahrach, to tread.

In the Zodiac of Denderah it is shown as a serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius, and is named Her-fent, which means the serpent accursed!

There are 80 stars in the constellation; four of the 2nd magnitude, seven of the 3rd magnitude, ten of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star a (in one of the latter coils), is named Thuban (Heb.), the subtle. Some 4,620 years ago it was the Polar Star. It is manifest, therefore, that the Greeks could not have invented this constellation, as is confessed by all modern astronomers. It is still a very important star in nautical reckonings, guiding the commerce of the seas, and thus "the god of this world" is represented as winding in his contortions round the pole of the world, as if to indicate his subtle influence in all worldly affairs.

The next star, b (in the head), is called by the Hebrew name Rastaban, and means the head of the subtle (serpent). In the Arabic it is still called Al Waid, which means who is to be destroyed.

The next star, g (also in the head), is called Ethanin, i.e., the long serpent, or dragon.

The Hebrew names of other stars are Grumian, the subtle; Giansar, the punished enemy. Other (Arabic) names are Al Dib, the reptile; El Athik, the fraudful; El Asieh, the bowed down.

And thus the combined testimony of every star (without a single exception) of each constellation, and the constellations of each sign, accords with the testimony of the Word of God concerning the coming Seed of the woman, the bruising of His heel, the crushing of the serpent's head, "the sufferings of Christ, and the glory which should follow."

"From far I see the glorious day,
When He who bore our sins away,
Will all His majesty display.

A Man of Sorrows one He was,
No friend was found to plead His cause,
As all preferred the world's applause.

He groaned beneath sin's awful load,
For in the sinner's place He stood,
And died to bring him back to God.

But now He waits, with glory crowned,
While angel hosts His throne surround,
And still His lofty praises sound.

To few on earth His name is dear,
And they who in His cause appear,
The world's reproach and scorn must bear.

Jesus, Thy name is all my boast,
And though by waves of trouble tossed,
Thou wilt not let my soul be lost.

Come then, come quickly from above,
My soul impatient longs to prove,
The depths of everlasting love."

Draconis View Stars
29 Equ the Little Horse Equuleus Equulei View Stars
30 Eri the River Eridanus

ERIDANUS. Wrath breaking forth as a flood.

Eridanus (the River)

It issues forth, in all the pictures, from the down-coming foot of Orion. While others see in it, from the ignorance of fabled story, only "the River Po," or the "River Euphrates," we see in it, from the meaning of its name, and from the significance of its positon, the river of the Judge.

In the Denderah Zodiac it is a river under the feet of Orion. It is named Peh-ta-t, which means the mouth of the river.

It is an immense constellation.

According to the Britannic catalogue, it consists of 84 stars; one of the 1st magnitude, one of the 2nd, eight of the 3rd, etc.

The brightest star, a (at the mouth of the river), bears the ancient name of Achernar, which is in, as its name means, the after part of the river.

The next star, b (at the source of the river), is named Cursa, which means bent down. The next, g (at the second bend in the river), is called Zourac (Arabic) flowing. Other stars are Pheat, mouth (of the river); and Ozha, the going forth.

Here, then, we have a river flowing forth from before the glorious Orion. It runs in a serpentine course towards the lower regions, down, down, out of sight. In vain the sea monster, Cetus, strives to stop its flow. It is "the river of the Judge," and speaks of that final judgment in which the wicked will be cast into the lake of fire. It was evidently originally associated with fire; for the Greek myths, though gross perversions, stil so connect it. According to their fables, something went wrong with the chariot of the sun, and a universal conflagration was threatened. In the trouble, Phaeton (probably a reference to the star Pheat) was killed and hurled into this river, in which he was consumed with its fire. The whole earth suffered from such a burning heat that great disasters ensued. We see from this myth two great facts preserved in the perverted tradition, viz., judgment and fire.

ARATUS also preserves the connection,

"For yonder, trod by heavenly feet,
Wind the scorched waters of Eridanus' tear-swollen flood,
Welling beneath Orion's uplifted foot."

Is not this the testimony afterwards written in the Book? Daniel sees this very river in his vision of that coming day, when the true Orion shall come forth in His glory. He says, "I beheld till the thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit:...His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire. A FIERY STREAM ISSUED AND CAME FORTH FROM BEFORE HIM." This is the River of the Judge; for he goes on to say, "the judgment was set, and the books were opened" (Dan 7:9-11, RV).

We have the same in Psalm 97:3-5 (RV), which describes the scene when the Lord shall reign:

And burneth up His adversaries round about.
His lightnings lightened the world:
The earth saw and trembled,
The hills melted like wax at the presence of the LORD,
At the presence of the Lord of the whole earth."

So again in Psalm 50:3, we read:

"Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence,
And it shall be very tempestuous round about Him."

By Habakkuk the coming of the Lord is described; and it is written:

"His brightness was as the light,...
Before Him went the pestilence,
And burning coals went forth at His feet."
Habakkuk 3:5

What is this but Orion and Eridanus!

Again, it is written in Isaiah 30:27-33 (RV):

"Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far,
Burning with His anger, and in thick rising smoke:
His lips are full of indignation,
And His tongue is as a DEVOURING FIRE:
And His breath is as AN OVERFLOWING STREAM [of fire]...
For a Topheth is prepared of old;
Yea, for the King [Moloch] it is made ready;
He hath made it deep and large;
The pile thereof is FIRE and much wood;
The breath of the LORD, LIKE A STREAM OF BRIMSTONE, doth kindle it."

So, again, we read in Nahum 1:5, 6:

"The mountains quake at Him,
And the hills melt;
And the earth is burned up at His presence,
Yea, the world and all that dwell therein.
Who can stand before His indignation?
And who can abide in the fierceness of His anger?

In Isaiah 66:15, 16, we read:

"For, behold, the LORD will come with fire,
And with His chariots like a whirlwind,
To render His anger with fury,
And His rebuke with FLAMES OF FIRE,
For BY FIRE, and by His sword, will the LORD plead with all flesh."

With this agree the New Testament scriptures, which speak of "the Day of the Lord," "when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, IN FLAMING FIRE taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Thess 1:7,8).

This is the true Eridanus. It is no mere "picture." It is a dread reality! It is written in stars of fire, and words of truth, that men may heed the solemn warning and "flee from the wrath to come"!

But we ask, "Who may abide the day of His coming? and who shall stand when He appeareth" (Mal 3:2)? "Who can stand before His indignation," when "His fury is poured out like fire" (Nahum 1:6)?

The answer is given in the next picture!

Eridani View Stars
31 For the Furnace Fornax Fornacis View Stars
32 Gem the Twins Gemini

Gemini (the twins) - He is the triumphant Redeemer coming twice, once as a sacrifice and next as the King.

Messiah’s Reign as Prince of Peace
Twins: Redeemer & King
Son & God
Jew & Gentile
Bride & Bridegroom
Balanced life
Practical in judgment; judicious in decision making
Struggle to dominate carnal
Lepus—enemy trod underfoot
Canis Major—coming Prince
Canis Minor—coming Redeemer

Gemini is represented symbolically by twins, one being a worshipper and the other a warrior. It reveals the image of Yeshua in a balanced life, not being too extreme but practical in judgment and judicious in decision making. It may also indicate a struggle for the spiritual mind to dominate over the carnal mind.

Castor and Pollux, the principal stars of Gemini, are in the heads of the twins. The one higher above the ecliptic is Castor, which means the ruler or king. The lower star, Pollux, means the sufferer. Locations of planets in proximity to these show inclinations toward that persuasion. This also shows balance between being redeemer-minded and kingly-minded.

Geminorum View Stars
33 Gru the Crane Grus Gruis View Stars
34 Her the Hercules Hercules

HERCULES. The mighty man victorious.

In the Zodiac of Denderah called Bau = who cometh. Arab. Al giscale, the strong one. The brightest star, Ras al Gethi = the head of him who bruises.

Hercules (the Mighty One)

Here the mighty one, who occupies a large portion of the heavens, is seen bending on one knee, with his right heel lifted up as if it had been wounded, while his left foot is set directly over the head of the great dragon. In his right hand he wields a great club, and in his left hand he grasps a triple-headed monster (Cerberus). And he has the skin of a lion, which he has slain, thrown around him. *

* Cerberus, or the serpent with three heads, was placed by Hevelius (1611-1687) by the side of Hercules. Bayer had previously placed the apple branch in his hand. This was symbolical of the golden apples of Hesperides, which he obtained by killing this three-headed hydra, by whom they were guarded. In our picture these are combined, and a bow and quiver added from other ancient authorities.

In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a human figure, likewise with a club. His name is Bau, which means who cometh, and is evidently intended for Him who cometh to crush the serpent's head, and "destroy the works of the devil."

In Arabic he is called Al Giscale, the strong one.

There are 113 stars in this constellation. Seven are of the 3rd magnitude, seventeen of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (in his head), is named Ras al Gethi, and means the head of him who bruises.

The next, b (in the right arm-pit, is named Kornephorus, and means the branch, kneeling.

The star k (in the right elbow) is called Marsic, the wounding.

The star l (in the upper part of the left arm) is named Ma'asyn, the sin-offering.

While w (in the lower part of the right arm) is Caiam, or Guiam, punishing; and in Arabic, treading under foot.

Thus does everything in the picture combine to set forth the mighty works of this stronger than the strong man armed!

We can easily see how the perversion of the truth by the Greeks came about, and how, when the true foreshadowings of this Mighty One had been lost, the many fables were invented to supply their place. The wiser sort of Greeks knew this perfectly well. ARISTOTLE (in his Metaphysics, x. 8) admits, with regard to Greek mythology, that religion and philosophy had been lost, and that much had been "added after the mythical style," while much had come down, and "may have been preserved to our times as the remains of ancient wisdom." Religion, such as it was (POLYBIUS confesses), was recognised as a "necessary means to political ends." NEANDER says that it was "the fragments of a tradition, which transmitted the knowledge of divine things possessed in the earliest times."

ARATUS shows the same uncertainty as to the meaning of this constellation of Hercules. He says:

"Near this, and like a toiling man, revolves
A form. Of it can no one clearly speak,
Nor what he labours at. They call him simply
'The man upon his knees': In desperate struggle
Like one who sinks, he seems. From both his shoulders
His arms are high-uplifted and out-stretched
As far as he can reach; and his right foot
Is planted on the coiled Dragon's head."

Ancient authorities differ as to the personality of Hercules, and they disagree as to the number, nature, and order of what are sometimes called "the twelve labours of Hercules." But there is no doubt as to the mighty foretold works which the woman's Seed should perform.

From first to last Hercules is seen engaged in destroying some malignant foe: now it is the Nemean lion; then it is the slaying of the boar of Erymanthus; again, it is the conquest of the bull of Crete; then the killing of the three-headed hydra, by whose venom Hercules afterwards died. In the belly of the sea monster he is said to have remained "three days and three nights." This was, doubtless a perversion of the type of Jonah, introduced by LYCOPHRON, who (living at the court of PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS, under whose auspices the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek) would have known of that Divine miracle, and of its applicaiton to the Coming One. Bishop Horsley believed that the fables of the Greek mythology could be traced back to the prophecies of the Messiah, of which they were a perversion from ignorance or design. This is specially true of Hercules. In his apparently impossible tasks of overthrowing gigantic enemies and delivering captives, we can see through the shadow, and discern the pure light of the truth. We can understand how the original star-picture must have been a prophetic representation of Him who shall destroy the Old Serpent and open the way again, not to fabled "apples of gold," but to the "tree of life" itself. He it is who though suffering in the mighty conflict, and brought to His knee, going down even to "the dust of death," shall yet, in resurrection and advent glory, wield His victorious club, subdue all His enemies, and plant His foot on the Dragon's head. For of Him it is written--

"Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder;
The young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under foot." Psalm 91:13

"Come, Lord and burst the captives' chains,
And set the prisoners free;
Come, cleanse this earth from all its stains,
And make it meet for Thee!

Oh, come and end Creation's groans--
Its sighs, its tears, its blood,
And make this blighted world again
The dwelling-place of God."

Herculis View Stars
35 Hya the Female Water Snake Hydra

HYDRA. The old serpent destroyed.

The Old Serpent. Hydra = he is abhorred. The brightest star is Cor Hydra = the heart of Hydra. Its ancient name is Al phard = the put away. Another is Al Drian = the abhorred. Another is Minchar al Sugia = the piercing of the deceiver.

Hydra (the Serpent)
Crater (the Cup)
Corvus (the Raven)

The time has at length come for the fulfilment of the many prophecies pictured in the heavens: and in its three final constellations we see the consummation of them all in the complete destruction of the Old Serpent, and all his seed, and all his works.

It is the special work of the Messiah, as "the Lion of the tribe of Judah," to trample it under foot.

It is pictured as the female serpent (Hydra), the mother and author of all evil. Hydra has the significant meaning, he is abhorred!

It is an immense constellation extending for above 100 degrees from east to west, beneath the Virgin, the Lion, and the Crab. It is composed of 60 stars; one of the 2nd magnitude, three of the 3rd, twelve of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (in the heart of the Serpent), is sometimes called by the moderns Cor Hydrae on that account. Its ancient name is Al Phard (Arabic), which means the separated, put away. Another is called Al Drian, the abhorred. Another star is named Minchar al Sugia, the piercing of the deceiver.

There can be no doubt as to what is taught by the constellation of Hydra, nor is it necessary to quote the Scriptures concerning the destruction of the Serpent. We pass on to consider the second.

Hydrae View Stars
36 Leo the Lion Leo

Leo (the lion) - He is the coming King to establish the kingdom He purchased with His own blood.

Messiah’s Consummated Triumph
Triumphant Lion of Judah
Claims victory
Leadership is bold and assertive
Strong personality
Apostolic attitude
Strong in resolve
Hydra—serpent destroyed
Crater—cup of wrath
Corvus—bird of prey devouring the serpent

Leo is the lion of the tribe of Judah, which shows leadership, a strong personality, and an apostolic attitude. These are the character traits of being an out-in-front leader. They are bold and assertive.

Leonis View Stars
37 Lep the Hare Lepus

LEPUS. The enemy trodden under foot.

(the enemy trodden under foot). In the Zodiac of Denderah the name is Bashti-beki = falling confounded. Aratus says "chased eternally." The brightest star is Arnebo = the enemy of Him Who cometh. Other stars are Nibal = the mad; Rakis, the bound; Sugia, the deceiver. (Isa. 63:3, 4.)

Lepus (the Hare) or Enemy

The names of the three constellations of this Sign, as well as the pictures, are all more or less modern, as is manifest from the names being in Latin, and having no relation to the ancient names of their stars. To learn their real meaning, therefore, we must have recourse to the ancient Zodiacs. In the Persian planisphere the first constellation was pictured by a serpent. In the Denderah (Egyptian) Zodiac it is an unclean bird standing on the serpent, which is under the feet of Orion. Its name there is given as Bashti-beki. Bashti means confounded, and Beki means failing.

ARATUS says,

"Below Orion's feet, the Hare
Is chased eternally."

It is a small constellation of 19 stars (all small), three of which are of the 3rd magnitude, seven of the 4th, etc.

The brightest, a (in the body), has a Hebrew name, Arnebo, which means the enemy of Him that cometh. The Arabic, Arnebeth, means the same. Other stars are Nibal, the mad; Rakis, the bound (Arabic, with a chain); Sugia, the deceiver.

There can be no mistaking the voice of this united testimony. For this enemy is under the down-coming foot of Orion, and it tells of the blessed fact that when the true Orion, "the Sun of Righteousness, shall arise," and "the true light" shall shine over all the earth, He "shall tread down the wicked" (Mal 4), and every enemy will be subdued under His feet. "It is He that shall tread down our enemies" (Psa 60:12), as He has said:

"I will tread them in Mine anger,
And trample them in My fury...
For the day of vengeance is in Mine heart,
And the year of My redeemed is come."
Isaiah 63:3, 4

Leporis View Stars
38 Lib the Scales Libra

Libra (the scales) - He is the price paid for redemption in the scales of justice

Redeemer’s Atoning Work
Scales: Christ on one side; sin on the other
Purchase price paid
Redemptive, sacrificial
Black-and-white judgments
Ancient zodiac depicts an altar
Gifting of discernment
Decans: Crux—cross endured (suffering)
Lupus/Victima— victim slain
Corona—crown bestowed

Libra is the figure of the scales, symbolizing both the redemptive and sacrificial natures of the Messiah (with Christ on one side of the scales and our sins on the other). Libra reveals the character traits of judgment and discernment and may indicate tendencies towards black-and-white judgments with little room for gray. This individual may have a gifting of discernment.

Librae View Stars
39 LMi the Lesser Lion Leo Minor Leonis Minoris View Stars
40 Lup the Wolf Victima

LUPUS. The Victim slain.

Lupus (Victima the Victim Slain)

Its modern name is Lupus (a wolf), because it looks like one. It may be any animal. The great point of this ancient constellation is that the animal has been slain, and is in the act of falling down dead.

Its Greek name is Thera, a beast, and Lycos, a wolf. Its Latin name is Victima, or Bestia (Vulg. Gen 8:17), which sufficiently indicates the great lesson. This is confirmed by its ancient Hebrew name, Asedah, and Arabic Asedaton, which both mean to be slain.

More than 22 of its stars have been catalogued. None of them are higher than the 4th magnitude; most of them are of the 5th or 6th.

True, He was "by wicked hands crucified and slain," but He is slain here by the Centaur, i.e. by Himself! To make it perfectly clear that it was His own act (without which His death would lose all merit), He uttered those solemn words "I lay down my life for the sheep...No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again" (John 10:15-18). He "offered Himself without spot to God." "He put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself" (Heb 9:11,26).

In the ancient Zodiac of Denderah He is pictured as a little child with its finger on its lips, and He is called Sura, a lamb! In other pictures He has, besides, the horn of a goat on one side of His head. All this pointed to one and the same great fact, viz., the development and explanation of what was meant by the bruising of His heel! It meant that this Promised Seed of the woman should come as a child, that He should suffer, and die upon the Cross, for

"He was brought as a lamb to the slaughter;
And as a sheep before her shearers is dumb;
SO HE opened not his mouth."
Isaiah 53:7

Hence, the constellation prefigures a silent, willing sacrifice--Christ Jesus, who, "being found in fashion as a man, humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross" (Phil 2:5-8).

Lupi View Stars
41 Lyn the Lynx Lynx Lyncis View Stars
42 Lyr the Lyre Lyra

LYRA. Praise prepared for the Conqueror.

(Ps. 65:1.) The brightest star Vega = He shall be exalted. In Zodiac of Denderah = Fent-kar = the serpent ruled. Originally an eagle, from confusion between Heb. nesher, and shir (song, or music).

Lyra (the Harp)

"Praise waiteth for thee, O God, in Zion" (Psa 65:1). And when the waiting time is over, and the Redeemer comes forth, then the praise shall be given. "We give Thee thanks, O Lord God, the Almighty, which art, and which wast, because thou hast taken to Thee Thy great power, and didst reign" (Rev 11:17, RV). "Let us be glad and rejoice and give honour unto Him" (Rev 19:7). The Twenty-first Psalm should be read here, as it tells of the bursting forth of praise on the going forth of this all-gracious Conqueror.

"The King shall rejoice in Thy strength, O LORD;
And in Thy salvation how greatly shall He rejoice!...
Thine hand shall find out all Thine enemies;
Thy right hand shall find out all that hate thee...
Their fruit shalt Thou destroy from the earth;
And their seed from among the children of men.
For they intended evil against Thee;
They imagined a mischievous device which they are not able to perform,
Therefore shalt thou make them turn their back
(Heb. Margin, "set them as a butt"),
When Thou shalt make ready Thine arrows upon Thy strings
[And shoot them] against the face of them.
Be thou exalted, LORD, in thine own strength;
Psalm 21:1, 8, 10-13

Beautifully, then, does the harp come in here, following upon the going forth of this victorious Horseman. This Song of the Lamb follows as naturally as does the Song of Moses in Exodus 15:1--"I will sing unto the LORD, for He hath triumphed gloriously."

Its brightest star, a, is one of the most glorious in the heavens, and by it this constellation may be easily known. It shines with a splendid white lustre. It is called Vega, which means He shall be exalted. Its root occurs in the opening of the Song of Moses, quoted above. Is not this wonderfully expressive?

Its other stars, b and g, are also conspicuous stars, of the 2nd and 4th magnitude. b is called Shelyuk, which means an eagle (as does the Arabic Al Nesr); g is called Sulaphat, springing up, or ascending, as praise.

In the Zodiac of Denderah, this constellation is figured as a hawk or an eagle (the enemy of the serpent) in triumph. Its name is Fent-kar, which means the serpent ruled.

There may be some confusion between the Hebrew Nesher, an eagle, and Gnasor, a harp; but there can be no doubt about the grand central truth, that praise shall ascend up "as an eagle toward heaven," when "every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that is in them," shall send up their universal song of praise: "Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. Amen" (Rev 5:13,14).

And for what is all this wondrous anthem of praise? Listen once again. "Alleluia *: Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God; for TRUE AND RIGHTEOUS ARE HIS JUDGMENTS...And again they said Alleluia" (Rev 19:1-3).

With "that blessed hope" before us,
Let no HARP remain unstrung;
Let the coming advent chorus
Onward roll from tongue to tongue,
"Come, Lord Jesus," quickly come.

* This is the first time that the word "Alleluia" occurs in the New Testament, and it is praise for judgment executed.

Where is its first occurrence in the Old Testament? In Psalm 104:35, where we have the very same solemn and significant connection:

"Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth,
And let the wicked be no more.
Bless thou the LORD, O my soul,
HALLELUJAH (Praise ye the LORD)."

Lyrae View Stars
43 Mon the Unicorn Monoceros Monocerotis View Stars
44 Oct the Octant Octans Octantis View Stars
45 Oph the Serpent Bearer Ophiuchus

OPHIUCHUS. The man grasping the serpent.

is from Arab. Afeichus = the serpent held. The brightest star is Ras al hagus = the head of him who holds. Other names are Megeras = contending. In the Zodiac of Denderah he is Api-bau = the chief who cometh. Other stars are Triophas = treading under foot; Saiph = bruised; Carnebas = bruised.

Here, Serpens, the serpent, is seen struggling vainly in the powerful grasp of the man who is named O-phi-u-chus. In Latin he is called Serpentarius. He is at one and the same moment shown to be seizing the serpent with his two hands, and treading on the very heart of the scorpion, marked by the deep red star Antares (wounding).

Just as we read the first constellation of the woman and child Coma, as expounding the first sign VIRGO, so we have to read this first constellation as expounding the second sign LIBRA. Hence, we have here a further picture, showing the object of this conflict on the part of the scorpion.

In Scorpio we see merely the effort to wound Ophiuchus in the heel; but here we see the effort of the serpent to seize THE CROWN, which is situated immediately over the serpent's head, and to which he is looking up and reaching forth.

The contest is for Dominion! It was the Devil, in the form of a serpent, that robbed the first man of his crown; but in vain he struggled to wrest it from the sure possession of the Second Man. Not only does he fail in the attempt, but is himself utterly defeated and trodden under foot.

There are no less than 134 stars in these two constellations. Two are of the 2nd magnitude, fourteen of the 3rd, thirteen of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star in the Serpent, a (in the neck), is named Unuk, which means encompassing. another Hebrew name is Alyah, the accursed. From this is Al Hay (Arabic), the reptile. The next brightest star is b(in the jaw), named, in Arabic, Cheleb, or Chelbalrai, the serpent enfolding. The Greek name, Ophiuchus, is itself from the Hebrew and Arabic name Afeichus, which means the serpent held. The brightest star in Ophiuchus, a (in the head), is called Ras al Hagus (Arabic), the head of him who holds.

Other Hebrew names of stars, not identified, are Triophas, treading under foot; Saiph (in the foot * of Ophiuchus), bruised; Carnebus, the wounding; Megeros, contending. ** In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a throned human figure, called Api-bau, the chief who cometh. He has a hawk's head to show that he is the enemy of the serpent, which is called Khu, and means ruled or enemy.

* In 1604 a new star appeared in the eastern foot of Ophiuchus, but disappeared again in 1605.

** There is an ancient Greek fable which calls Ophiuchus Aesculapius, the son of Apollo. Having restored Hippolytus to life, he was everywhere worshipped as the god of health, and hence the serpent entwined around him is, to this day, the symbol of the medical art! This, however, is, doubtless, another perversion of the primitive truth that the Coming One in overcoming the serpent, should become the great healer of all the sorrows of the world, and cause all its groanings to cease.

All these combine to set before us in detail the nature of the conflict and its final issue. That final issue is, however, exhibited by the last of the three constellations of this chapter. The Victor Himself requires a whole picture to fully set forth the glorious victory. This brings us to--


Ophiuchi View Stars
46 Ori the Hunter Orion

ORION. The redeemer breaking forth as Light.

The coming Prince. Light breaking forth, through the Redeemer. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Ha-ga-t = this is He Who triumphs. Oarion = Heb. 'Or, light; or coming forth as light (cp. Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). Heb. Kesil = a strong one (translated "Orion" in Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). The brightest star is Betelgeuz = the coming of the Branch (Mal. 3:2). The next is Rigel or Rigol = the foot of him that crusheth. The next is Bellatrix = swiftly destroying. Another is Al Nitak = the wounded One. Many others with names of cumulative meanings. (See Isa. 42:13, 14; 60:1-3.)

Orion (the Glorious One)

This picture is to show that the coming one is no mere animal, but a man: a mighty, triumphant, glorious prince.

He is so pictured in the ancient Denderah Zodiac, where we see a man coming forth pointing to the three bright stars (Rigel, Bellatrix, and Betelguez) as his. His name is given as Ha-ga-t, which means this is he who triumphs. The hieroglyphic characters below read Oar. Orion was anciently spelt Oarion, from the Hebrew root, which means light. So that Orion means coming forth as light. The ancient Akkadian was Ur-ana, the light of heaven.

Orion is the most brilliant of all the constellations, and when he comes to the meridian he is accompanied by several adjacent constellations of great splendour. There is then above the horizon the most glorious view of the celestial bodies that the starry firmament affords; and this magnificent view is visible to all the habitable world, because the equinoctial line (or solstitial colure) passes nearly through the middle of Orion.

ARATUS thus sings of him:

"Eastward, beyond the region of the Bull,
Stands great Orion. And who, when night is clear,
Beholds him gleaming bright, shall cast his eyes in vain
To find a Sign more glorious in all heaven."

The constellation is mentioned by name, as being perfectly well known both by name and appearance, in the time of Job; and as being an object of familiar knowledge at that early period of the world's history. See Job 9:9; 38:31, and Amos 5:8 (Heb. Chesil, which means a strong one, a hero, or giant).

It contains 78 stars, two being of the 1st magnitude, four of the 2nd, four of the 3rd, sixteen of the 4th, etc.

A little way below i (in the sword) is a very remarkable nebulous star. A common telescope will show that it is a beautiful nebula. A powerful telescope reveals it as consisting of collections of nebulous stars, these again being surrounded by faint luminous points, which still more powerful telescopes would resolve into separate stars.

Thus beautifully is set forth the brilliancy and glory of that Light which shall break forth when the moment comes for it to be said, "Arise, shine, for thy light is come."

The picture presents us with "the Light of the world." His left foot is significantly placed upon the head of the enemy. He is girded with a glorious girdle, studded with three brilliant stars; and upon this girdle is hung a sharp sword. Its handle proves that this mighty Prince is come forth in a new character. He is again proved to be "the Lamb that was slain," for the hilt of this sword is in the form of the head and body of a lamb. In his right hand he lifts on high his mighty club; while in his left he holds forth the token of his victory--the head and skin of the "roaring lion." We ask in wonder, "Who is this?" and the names of the stars give us the answer.

The brightest, a (in the right shoulder), is named Betelgeuz, which means the coming (Mal 3:2) of the branch.

The next, b (in the left foot), is named Rigel, or Rigol, which means the foot that crusheth. The foot is lifted up, and placed immediately over the head of the enemy, as though in the very act of crushing it. Thus, the name of the star bespeaks the act.

The next star, g (in the left shoulder), is called Bellatrix, which means quickly coming, or swiftly destroying.

The name of the fourth star, d (one of the three in the belt), carries us back to the old, old story, that this glorious One was once humbled; that His heel was once bruised. Its name is Al Nitak, the wounded One. * Similarly the star k (in the right leg) is called Saiph, bruised, which is the very word used in Genesis 3:15, thus connecting Orion with the primeval prophecy. Like Ophiuchus, he has one leg bruised; while, with the other, he is crushing the enemy under foot.

* The star z (in the belt) is called Mintaka, dividing, as a sacrifice (Lev 8:2).

This is betokened by other stars named Al Rai, who bruises, who breaks (as in Cepheus); and Thabit (Hebrew), treading on.

Other (Arabic) names relate to His Person: Al Giauza, the branch; Al Gebor, the mighty; Al Mirzam, the ruler; Al Nagjed, the prince; Niphla (Chaldee), the mighty; Nux (Hebrew), the strong. Some names relate to His coming, as Betelgeuse and Bellatrix, as above; Heka (Chaldee), coming; and Meissa (Hebrew), coming forth.

Such is the cumulative testimony of Orion's stars, which, day after day, and night after night, show forth this knowledge. That testimony was afterwards written in the Book. The Prince of Glory, who was once wounded for the sins of His redeemed, is about to rise up and shine forth for their deliverance. Their redemption draweth nigh; for--

"The LORD shall go forth as a mighty man,
He shall stir up jealousy like a man of war;
He shall cry, yea, roar;
He shall prevail against His enemies.
I have [He says] long time holden my peace;
I have been still, and refrained myself:
Now will I cry like a travailing woman;
I will destroy and devour at once."
Isaiah 42:13, 14

Then it will be said to His people (and the setting of the prophecy in its beautiful introverted structure shows us the beauty and glory of the truth it reveals): *

a: Arise,
b: Shine; for thy light is come,
c: And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee.
d: For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth,
d: And gross darkness the people;
c: But the LORD shall arise upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee.
b: And the Gentiles shall come to thy light,
a: And kings to the brightness of thy rising. (Isaiah 60:1-3)

* Note that--
In a and a, we have the rising of Israel;
In b and b, the light that is come upon her;
In c and c, the glory of the LORD; and
In d and d, the darkness of the world.

This is "the glory of the God" which the heavens constantly declare (Psalm 19:1). They tell of that blessed time when the whole earth shall be filled with His glory (Num 14:21; Isa 11:9); when "the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together" (Isa 40:5), as all see now the beauty of Orion's glory.

But side by side with the glory which the coming Light of the world shall bring for His people, there is "that wicked," whom the Lord "shall destroy with the brightness of His coming." Hence, as in the concluding chapter (4) of the First Book (of which this Third Book is the expansion) we had in LYRA (the harp), as 1, Praise prepared for the Conqueror; and in ARA (the burning pyre), as 2, consuming fire prepared for His enemies: so in the first chapter of this book, we have in ORION, as 1, Glory prepared for the Conqueror; and in ERIDANUS, as 2, the River of wrath prepared for His enemies. This brings us to--

Orionis View Stars
47 Pav the Peacock Pavo Pavonis View Stars
48 Peg the Winged Horse Pegasus

PEGASUS. The blessings quickly coming.

The winged horse. Zodiac of Denderah Pe and ka = Peka, or pega. Heb. pehah = the chief, and sus, a horse; name thus come down. The brightest is Markab, Heb. merhak = returning from afar.

Pegasus (the Winged Horse)

Not only shall they be received, but they shall be brought near. They will not have to be fetched, but they will be caused to come to those for whom they are procured, and will yet be brought by Him who has procured them.

In the Denderah Zodiac there are two characters immediately below the horse, Pe and ka. Peka or Pega, is in Hebrew the chief, and Sus is horse. So that the very word (Pegasus) has come down to us and has been preserved through all the languages.

The names of the stars in this constellation declare to us its meaning. There are 89 altogether; one of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, three of the 3rd, nine of the 4th, etc. And, as astronomers testify, "they render Pegasus peculiarly remarkable."

The brightest a (on the neck of the horse at the junction of the wing), comes down to us with the ancient Hebrew name of Markab, which means returning from afar. The star b (in the near shoulder) is called Scheat, i.e., who goeth and returneth The star g (at the tip of the wing) bears an Arabic name--Al Genib, who carries. The star e (in the nostril) is called Enif (Arabic), the water The star h (in the near leg) is called Matar (Arabic), who causes to flow.

These names show us that we have to do with no mere horse. A winged horse is unknown to nature. It must therefore be used as a figure; and it can be a figure only of a person, even of Him who is "the Branch," as the star Enif shows, who said, "If I go away I will come again," as the star Scheat testifies.

He who procured these blessings for the redeemed by His Atonement, is quickly coming to bring them; and is soon returning to pour them forth upon a groaning creation. This is the lesson of Pegasus.

"Come, blessed Lord, bid every shore
And answering island sing
The praises of Thy royal Name,
And own Thee as their King.

Lord, Lord! thy fair creation groans--
The earth, the air, the sea--
In unison with all our hearts,
And calls aloud for Thee.

Thine was the Cross with all its fruits
Of grace and peace divine:
Be Thine the Crown of glory now,
The palm of victory Thine."

Pegasi View Stars
49 Per the Hero Perseus

PERSEUS. The "Breaker" delivering.

The Breaker. Heb. Perez. Greek, Perses, or Perseus (Rom. 16:12. Mic. 2: 12, 13). Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Kar Knem = he who fights and subdues. The brightest star is Mirfak = who helps. The next, Al Genib = who carries away. The next is Athik = who breaks.

Perseus (the Breaker)

Here we have set before us a mighty man, called in the Hebrew Peretz, from which we have the Greek form Perses, or Perseus (Rom 16:13). It is the same word which is used of Christ in Micah 2:13. When He shall surely "gather the remnant of Israel" (v 12), it is written--

"THE BREAKER is gone up before them...
Their King is passed on before them,
And the LORD at the head of them."

This is what is pictured to us here. We see a glorious "Breaker" taking His place before His redeemed, breaking forth at their head, breaking down all barriers, and breaking the heads of Leviathan and all his hosts. In His right hand He has His "sore, and great, and strong sword" lifted up to smite and break down the enemy. He has wings on His feet, which tell us that He is coming very swiftly. In His left hand He carries the head of the enemy, whom he has slain.

In the Denderah Zodiac His Name is Kar Knem, he who fights and subdues.

It is a beautiful constellation of 59 stars, two of which are of the 2nd magnitude, four of the 3rd, twelve of the 4th, etc.

Their names supply us with the key to the interpretation of the picture.

The star a (in the waist) is called Mirfak, who helps. The next, g (in the right shoulder), is named Al Genib, which means who carries away. The bright star in the left foot is called Athik, who breaks!

In his left hand he carries a head, which, by perversion, the Greeks called the head of Medusa, being ignorant that its Hebrew root meant the trodden under foot. It is also called Rosh Satan (Hebrew), the head of the adversary, and Al Oneh (Arabic), the subdued, or Al Ghoul, the evil spirit.

The bright star, b (in this head), has come down to us with the name Al Gol, which means rolling round.

It is a most remarkable phenomenon that so many of these enemies should be characterised by variable stars! But this head of Medusa, like the neck of Cetus, has one. Al Gol is continually changing. In about 69 hours it changes from the 4th magnitude to the 2nd. During four hours of this period it gradually diminishes in brightness, which it recovers in the succeeding four hours; and in the remaining part of the time invariably preserves its greatest lustre. After the expiration of this time its brightness begins to decrease again. Fit emblem of our great enemy, who, "like a roaring lion, goeth about seeking whom he may devour" (1 Peter 5:8); then changing into a subtle serpent (Gen 3:8); then changing again into "an angel of light" (2 Cor 11:14). "Transforming himself" continually, to devour, deceive, and destroy.

This brings us to the conclusion of the Second Book, in which we have seen the Redeemed blessed with all blessings, delivered out of all conflict, saved from all enemies. We have seen their Redeemer, "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world," "the Conqueror," "the King of Kings and Lord of Lords."

This is the Revelation recorded in the heavens. This is the prophetic testimony inspired in the Book. And this is the heart-cry prompted by both:

"Come, Lord, and tarry not,
Bring the long-looked-for day;
Oh, why these years of waiting here,
These ages of delay?

Come, for Thy saints still wait;
Daily ascends their cry:
'The Spirit and the Bride say, Come';
Dost Thou not hear their cry?

Come, for creation groans,
Impatient of Thy stay;
Worn out with these long years of ill,
These ages of delay.

Come, for Thine Israel pines,
An exile from Thy fold;
Oh, call to mind Thy faithful word,
And bless them as of old.

Come, for thy foes are strong;
With taunting lips they say,
'Where is the promised advent now,
And where the dreaded day?'

Come, for the good are few;
They lift the voice in vain;
Faith waxes fainter on the earth,
And love is on the wane.

Come, in Thy glorious might;
Come, with Thine iron rod;
Disperse Thy foes before Thy face,
Most mighty Son of God.

Come, and make all things new,
Build up this ruined earth;
Restore our faded paradise,
Creation's second birth.

Come, and begin Thy reign
Of everlasting peace;
Come, take the kingdom to Thyself,
Great King of Righteousness."
Dr. Horatius Bonar

Persei View Stars
50 Phe the Phoenix Phoenix Phoenicis View Stars
51 Pic the Painter's Easel Pictor Pictoris View Stars
52 PsA the Southern Fish Piscis Austrinus

PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The blessings bestowed.

The southern fish. Arab. Fom al haut = the mouth of the fish. Zodiac of Denderah = Aar, a stream.

Piscis Australis (the Southern Fish)

This first constellation is one of high antiquity, and its brilliant star of the first magnitude was a subject of great study by the Egyptians and Ethiopians. It is named in Arabic Fom al Haut, the mouth of the fish There are 22 other stars.

The constellation is inseparable from AQUARIUS. In the Denderah Zodiac it is called Aar, a stream.

It sets forth the simple truth that the blessings procured by the MAN--the coming Seed of the woman, will be surely bestowed and received by those for whom they are intended. There will be no failure in their communication, or in their reception. What has been purchased shall be secured and possessed.

Piscis Austrini View Stars
53 Psc the Fishes Pisces

Pisces (the fishes) - He is the Redeemer of both Jews and Gentiles, tied together by the band of His sacrifice for all.

Their Blessings in Abeyance
Two fishes connected by a band
Shows relationship: Vertical band and fish—toward God; Horizontal band and fish—toward people
Great giftings from God that must be developed
Strong evangelistic tendencies
The Band—warriors
Andromeda—the chained woman
Cepheus—crowned king

Pisces is represented by two fishes connected by a band; one fish is pointing up (north), and the other is flowing horizontally with the ecliptic path of the Sun. Pisces shows abundance and usually great giftings that must be developed in order to bless and help others. It may also indicate strong evangelistic tendencies. The relationship of the band vertically indicates relationship to the Creator; the horizontal band flowing with the ecliptic shows relationship with people.

THE BAND. The great enemy, "Cetus."

Egyptian name U-or = He cometh binding them together (Hos. 11:4); and breaking the band which binds them to their old enemy Cetus.

Pisces (the Fishes) and The Band

The band that unites these two fishes has always formed a separate constellation. The Arabian poems of ANTARAH frequently mention it as distinct from the Sign with which it is so closely connected. ANTARAH was an Arabian poet of the sixth century.

Its ancient Egyptian name was U-or, which means He cometh. Its Arabic name is Al Risha, the band, or bridle.

It speaks of the Coming One, not in His relation to Himself, or to His enemies, but in His relation to the Redeemed. It speaks of Him who says:

"I drew them with cords of a man,
With bands of love;
And I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws."
Hosea 11:4, RV

But it speaks also of His unloosing the bands with which they have been so long bound.

One end of the band is fastened securely round the tail of one fish, and it is the same with the other. Moreover, this band is fastened to the neck of Cetus, the sea monster, while immediately above is seen a woman chained as a captive. These both tell the same story, and, indeed, all are required to set forth the whole truth. The fishes are bound to Cetus; the woman (Andromeda) is chained; but the Deliverer of both is near. Cepheus, the Crowned King, the Redeemer, "the Breaker," the Branch, is seen coming quickly for the deliverance of His redeemed. These are the three constellations of this sign, and all three are required to set forth the story.

Israel now is bound. The great enemy still oppresses, but deliverance is sure. ARIES, the Ram, is seen with his paws on this band, as though about to loosen the bands and set the captives free, and to fast bind their great oppressor.

Piscium View Stars
54 Pup the Stern Puppis Puppis View Stars
55 Pyx the Compass Pyxis Pyxidis View Stars
56 Sco the Scorpion Scorpius

Scorpio (the scorpion) - He is the wounded Redeemer (wounded by the enemy)

Redeemer’s Conflict
Most violent
Victory through conflict
Strong will to win
Victorious after being wounded
Strong prophetic gifting
Decans: Serpens—the struggle with the serpent (warfare)
Ophiuchus—Jesus holds Satan (warfare)
Hercules—Jesus wounded in heel but takes head off Satan

Scorpio is the figure of the scorpion with the conqueror’s (Ophiuchus’) foot on its heart. It is the most violent position in the ecliptic path and shows victory through conflict. This shows tenacity, a strong will to win, and being victorious after being wounded, especially since Hercules is included as a decan in this grouping of constellations. It may also reveal a strong prophetic gifting.

Scorpii View Stars
57 Ser the Serpent Serpens

SERPENS. Assaulting the man's heel.

The brightest star is called (Heb.) 'anak = encompassing. Heb. kelalah = the accursed. Arab. Al hay, the reptile.

Here, Serpens, the serpent, is seen struggling vainly in the powerful grasp of the man who is named O-phi-u-chus. In Latin he is called Serpentarius. He is at one and the same moment shown to be seizing the serpent with his two hands, and treading on the very heart of the scorpion, marked by the deep red star Antares (wounding).

Just as we read the first constellation of the woman and child Coma, as expounding the first sign VIRGO, so we have to read this first constellation as expounding the second sign LIBRA. Hence, we have here a further picture, showing the object of this conflict on the part of the scorpion.

In Scorpio we see merely the effort to wound Ophiuchus in the heel; but here we see the effort of the serpent to seize THE CROWN, which is situated immediately over the serpent's head, and to which he is looking up and reaching forth.

The contest is for Dominion! It was the Devil, in the form of a serpent, that robbed the first man of his crown; but in vain he struggled to wrest it from the sure possession of the Second Man. Not only does he fail in the attempt, but is himself utterly defeated and trodden under foot.

There are no less than 134 stars in these two constellations. Two are of the 2nd magnitude, fourteen of the 3rd, thirteen of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star in the Serpent, a (in the neck), is named Unuk, which means encompassing. another Hebrew name is Alyah, the accursed. From this is Al Hay (Arabic), the reptile. The next brightest star is b(in the jaw), named, in Arabic, Cheleb, or Chelbalrai, the serpent enfolding. The Greek name, Ophiuchus, is itself from the Hebrew and Arabic name Afeichus, which means the serpent held. The brightest star in Ophiuchus, a (in the head), is called Ras al Hagus (Arabic), the head of him who holds.

Other Hebrew names of stars, not identified, are Triophas, treading under foot; Saiph (in the foot * of Ophiuchus), bruised; Carnebus, the wounding; Megeros, contending. ** In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a throned human figure, called Api-bau, the chief who cometh. He has a hawk's head to show that he is the enemy of the serpent, which is called Khu, and means ruled or enemy.

* In 1604 a new star appeared in the eastern foot of Ophiuchus, but disappeared again in 1605.

** There is an ancient Greek fable which calls Ophiuchus Aesculapius, the son of Apollo. Having restored Hippolytus to life, he was everywhere worshipped as the god of health, and hence the serpent entwined around him is, to this day, the symbol of the medical art! This, however, is, doubtless, another perversion of the primitive truth that the Coming One in overcoming the serpent, should become the great healer of all the sorrows of the world, and cause all its groanings to cease.

All these combine to set before us in detail the nature of the conflict and its final issue. That final issue is, however, exhibited by the last of the three constellations of this chapter. The Victor Himself requires a whole picture to fully set forth the glorious victory. This brings us to--


Serpentis View Stars
58 SGe the Arrow Sagitta

SAGITTA. The arrow of God sent forth.

the arrow. (Ps. 38:2. Isa. 53:4, 5.) Heb. Shamad, or shamem = destroying.

Sagitta (the Arrow)

It is not the Arrow of Sagittarius, for that has not left his bow. That arrow is for the enemies of God. This is for the Son of God. It was of this that He spoke when He said, in Psalm 38:2--

"Thine arrows stick fast in me,
And Thy hand presseth me sore."

He was "stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted, He was wounded for our transgressions" (Isa 53:4,5). He was "pierced," when He could say with Job, "The arrows of the Almighty are within me" (6:4).

Here the arrow is pictured to us in mid-heaven, alone, as having been shot forth by an invisible hand. It is seen in its flight through the heavens. It is the arrow of God, showing that Redemption is all of God. It was "the will of God" which Jesus came to do. Not a mere work of mercy for miserable sinners, but a work ordained in eternity past, for the glory of God in eternity future.

This is the record of the Word, and this is what is pictured for us here. The work which the arrow accomplishes is seen in the dying Goat, and in the falling Eagle.

There are many other stars in the heavens in a straighter line, which would better serve for an arrow. Why are these stars chosen? Why is the arrow placed here? What explanation can be given, except that the Revelation in the stars and in the Book are both from the inspiration of the same Spirit?

There are about 18 stars of which four are of the 4th magnitude. Only g and d are in the same line, while the shaft passes between a and b.

The Hebrew name is Sham, destroying, or desolate.

Sagittae View Stars
59 Sgr the Archer Sagittarius

Sagittarius (the archer) - He is the victorious King returning after being wounded.

Redeemer’s Triumph
Jesus returns—archer on a white horse
Winning attitude despite circumstances
Kingdom taker
Aggressive nature
Strong finisher in end
Apostolic message
Lyra—harp (high praise)
Ara—altar; consuming fire prepared for His enemies
Draco—serpent cast down

Sagittarius, the archer on the white horse, reveals a winning attitude, despite circumstances. It is indicative of warrior-like, kingdom-taker character traits, revealing Messiah’s aggressive nature as a strong finisher in the end. Sagittarius carries an apostolic message.

Sagittarii View Stars
60 Tau the Bull Taurus

Taurus (the bull) - He is the blood of the bull, as a profile of Old Testament offerings for redemption.

Coming Messiah
Judge of all Earth
Charging bull
Great determination and strong will
Purpose driven
Dedicated to finishing the fight
Protective of others
Eridanus—river of the judge
Auriga—shepherd protecting his people

Taurus is the figure of a charging bull, indicative of great determination and a strong will. This kind of determination was demonstrated Christologically by His dedication to finish the fight at Calvary. These stand strong in the Lord (Ephesians 6:10).

Tauri View Stars
61 TrA the Southern Triangle Triangulum Australe Trianguli Australis View Stars
62 Tri the Triangle Triangulum Trianguli View Stars
63 UMa the Great Bear Ursa Major

URSA MAJOR. The fold and the flock.

The great Bear = the Fold and the Flock (Obad. 17-19). In Job 9:9 and 38:31, 32 it is called 'Ash and her offspring. A.V. = Arcturus and her sons. R.V. = Bear and his train (marg., sons). Arabs still call it Al Naish or Annaish = the assembled together as in a fold. The brightest star is Dubhe = a flock, which gives its name to the two constellations. The next is Merach = the flock (Arabic = purchased). The next is Phaeda or Pharda = numbered or guarded (Ps. 147:4). Another is called Benet Naish = daughters of the assembly. Another, Al Kaid = the assembled. Many other cognate names. (Cp. Ezek. 34:12-16.)


Ursa Major (the Great Bear)

Of these it is written--

"But in Mount Zion there shall be those that escape,
And it shall be holy:
And the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions."
Obadiah 17-19, RV

It is a large and important constellation, containing 87 stars, of which one is of the 1st magnitude, four of the 2nd, three of the 3rd, ten of the 4th, etc. It always presents a splendid appearance, and is perhaps, therefore, the best known of all the constellations.

In the Book of Job (9:9, and 38:31,32) it is mentioned under the name of Ash. "Canst thou guide Ash and her offspring?" which is rendered in the AV, "Arcturus and his sons," and in the RV, "The Bear with her train" (marg., "sons"). The Arabs still call it Al Naish, or Annaish, the assembled together, as sheep in a fold. The ancient Jewish commentators interpreted Ash as the seven stars of this constellation. They are called by others Septentriones, which thus became the Latin word for North.

The brightest star, a (in the back), is named Dubhe, which, as we have seen, means a herd of animals, or a flock, and gives its name to the whole constellation.

The star b (below it) is named Merach (Hebrew), the flock (Arabic, purchased).

The star g (on the left of b) is called Phaeda, or Phacda, meaning visited, guarded, or numbered, as a flock; for His sheep, like the stars, are both numbered and named. (See Psalm 147:4)

The star e is called Alioth, a name we have had in Auriga, meaning a she goat.

The star z (in the middle of the tail) is called Mizar, separate or small, and close to it Al Cor, the Lamb.

The star h (at the end of the so-called tail) is named Benet Naish (Arabic), the daughters of the assembly. It is also called Al Kaid, the assembled.

The star i (in its right foot) is called Talitha.

The names of other stars all give the same testimony: El Alcola (Arabic), the sheepfold (as in Psa 95:7; and 100:3); Cab'd al Asad, multitude, many assembled; Annaish, the assembled; Megrez, separated, as the flock in the fold; El Kaphrah, protected, covered (Heb. redeemed and ransomed); Dubheh Lachar (Arabic), the latter herd or flock; Helike (so called by HOMER in the Iliad), company of travellers; Amaza (Greek), coming and going; Calisto, the sheepfold set or appointed.

There is not one discordant voice in the rich abundance of this testimony. We have nothing to do here with the Grecian myths about bears or wild boars. We see only the innumeralbe seed gathered by Him who scattered (Jer 31:10).

Many are the Scriptures we might quote which speak of this gathering and assembling of the long scatterd flock. It is written as plainly in the Book, as it is in the heavens. The prophecies of this gathering are as conspicuous in the Word of God as the "Seven Stars" in the sky. It is difficult even to make a selection from the wealth of such promises; but few are more beautiful than that in Ezekiel 34:12-16:

"As a shepherd seeketh out his flock
In the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered;
So will I seek out my sheep,
And will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.
And I will bring them out from the people,
And gather them from the countries,
And will bring them to their own land,
And feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers
And in all the inhabited places of the country.
I will feed them in a good pasture,
And upon the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be:
There shall they lie in a good fold,
And in a fat pasture shall they feed upon the mountains of Israel.
I will feed my flock,
And I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD (Adonai Jehovah).
I will seek that which was lost,
And bring again that which was driven away,
And will bind up that which was broken,
And will strengthen that which was sick:
But I will destroy the fat and the strong;
I will feed them with judgment."

It is of this judgment with which this book, and indeed the whole Revelation, ends, in the next and final chapter.

But before we come to that we have one more picture in the third constellation of this Sign, which combines the first two in one.

Ursae Majoris View Stars
64 UMi the Little Bear Ursa Minor

URSA MINOR. The lesser sheepfold.

The little Bear = the lesser sheep-fold. The brightest star of Ursa Minor is Dubheh = a herd. Arabic Dubah means cattle. Heb. Dober = a fold, from dobe' = rest or security, rendered "strength" in Deut. 33:25. See R.V. marg. All points to this (cp. Judg. 5:16). The Heb. Dob = a bear. So Arabic Dub, and Persian Deeb or Dob. Hence the mistake. The brightest star is Al riccaba = the turned or ridden on, denoting it as the Polar star. The Greeks called it Kunosoura = Cynosure, but this word is Accadian. An-nas-sur-ra = high in rising; or high in heavenly position. The next bright star is Kochab = waiting Him Who cometh.

Ursa Minor (the Little Bear)

Here we come to another grievous mistake, or ignorant perversion of primitive truth, as shown in the ancient names of these two constellations.

It is sufficient to point to the fact that no Bear is found in any Chaldean, Egyptian, Pesian, or Indian Zodiacs, and that no bear was ever seen with such a tail! No one who had ever seen a bear would have called attention to a tail, such as no bear ever had, by placing in its very tip the most important, wondrous, and mysterious Polar Star, the central star of the heavens, round which all others revolve. The patriarchal astronomers, we may be sure, committed no such folly as this.

The primitive truth that there were two, or a pair of constellations is preserved; and that of these two, one is larger, and the other smaller. But what were they? We have the clue to the answer in the name of the brightest star of the larger constellation, which is called Dubheh. Now Dubheh means a herd of animals. In Arabic, Dubah means cattle. In Hebrew, Dohver, is a fold; and hence in Chaldee it meant wealth. The Hebrew Dohveh, means rest or security; and certainly there is not much of either to be found or enjoyed with bears! The word occurs in Deuteronomy 33:25 "As thy days so shall thy strength be." The Revised Version gives in the margin, "So shall thy rest or security be." This accords with what we have already seen under CANCER: "Couching down between the sheepfolds, he saw a resting-place that it was good."

Here are the two Sheepfolds, then; the Greater fold, and Lesser; and here is the rest and security which the flocks will find therein.

But in Hebrew there is a word very similar in sound, though not in spelling--dohv, which means a bear! So we find in Arabic dub; Persian, deeb and dob. We can see, therefore, how the Hebrew Dohver, a fold, and Dohv, a bear, were confused; and how the Arabic Dubah, cattle, might easily have been mistaken by the Greeks, and understood as a bear.

The constellation, which we must therefore call THE LESSER SHEEPFOLD, contains 24 stars, viz., one of the 2nd magnitude, two of the 3rd, four of the 4th, etc.

The brightest star, a (at the point of the tail), is the most important in the whole heavens. It is named Al Ruccaba, which means the turned or ridden on, and is today the Polar or central star, which does not revolve in a circle as does every other star, but remains, apparently, fixed in its position. But though the star does not revolve like the others, the central point in the heavens is very slowly but steadily moving. When these constellations were formed the Dragon possessed this important point, and the star a, in Draco, marked this central point. But, by its gradual recession, that point is sufficiently near this star Ruccaba, in the Lesser Sheepfold, for it to be what is called "the Polar Star." But, how could this have been known five or six thousand years ago? How could it have been known when it received its name, which means the turned or ridden on? That it was known is clear: so likewise was it made known in the written Word that the original blessing included not merely the multiplicaiton of the seed of faithful Abraham, but it was then added, "And thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies" (Gen 22:17).

This star was called by the Greeks the "Cynosure." ARATUS seems to apply this term to the whole of the seven stars of the Lesser Bear. Mr. Robert Brown, Jr., shows that this word once supposed to be Hellenic, is non-Hellenic, and possibly Euphratean in origin, from a word which he transliterates An-nas-sur-ra, and renders it, "as it literally means, high in rising, i.e., in heavenly position." (Euphratean Stellar Researches). Is not this the primitve truth of the Revelation? Will not this Lesser Fold be high, yea, the highest in heavenly position?

The Polar Star has been removed from the Dragon, and is now in the Lesser Fold; and when the Dragon shall be cast down from the heavens, the heavenly seed will be safely folded there. But this is the Lesser Sheepfold. These are they who all through the ages have been "partakers of the heavenly calling," who desired a better country, that is, a heavenly; wherefore God "hath prepared for them a city," the city for which Abraham himself "looked." This was no earthly city, but a city "whose builder and maker is God" (Heb 11:10-16). These have always been a smaller company, a "little flock," but the kingdom shall be theirs, even the kingdom of God, for which they now look and wait. They have not yet "received the promises; but, having seen them afar off" by faith, they "were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth" (Heb 11:13). Their Messiah has accomplished "the redemption of the purchased possession," and in due time the redeemed will inherit it, "unto the praise of His glory" (Eph 1:13).

The bright star b is named Kochab, which means waiting Him who cometh. Other stars are named Al Pherdadain (Arabic), which means the calves, or the young (as in Deut 22:6), the redeemed assembly. Another, Al Gedi, means the kid. Another is Al Kaid, the assembled; while Arcas, or Arctos (from which we derive the term Arctic regions), means, according to one interpreter, a travelling company; or, according to another, the stronghold of the saved.

But there is not only the heavenly seed, which is compared "to the stars of heaven," but there is the seed that is compared to "the sand of the sea"--the larger flock or company, who will enjoy the earthly blessing.

This brings us to--

Ursae Minoris View Stars
65 Vel the Sails Vela Velorum View Stars
66 Vir the Maiden Virgo

Virgo (the virgin)—Christ is the promised Seed of the woman.

Redeemer as Promised Seed
Woman bringing forth Redeemer (with child)
Kingdom builder
Individual works outside the nine dots of conformity
Looking for better way of doing things
Decans: Coma—birth of desired Son
Centaurus—victim slain
Bootes—the coming one

Virgo is the figure of the woman who would bring forth the Redeemer. It is the first constellation in the ecliptic path and indicates the image of Messiah as a kingdom builder and visionary. Its positioning as the first constellation also shows the character trait of initiation, often indicative of an individual who operates outside the nine dots of conformity. This person is usually looking for a better way of doing things instead of sticking with the status quo.

Virginis View Stars
67 Vul the Fox Vulpecula Vulpeculae View Stars